cognitive dissonance

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Related to Cognitive consistency: cognitive dissonance

dissonance

 [dis´o-nans]
discord or disagreement.
cognitive dissonance anxiety or similar unpleasant feelings resulting from a lack of agreement between a person's established ideas, beliefs, and attitudes and some more recently acquired information or experience.

cog·ni·tive dis·so·nance the·o·ry

a theory of attitude formation and behavior describing a motivational state that exists when a person's cognitive elements (attitudes, perceived behaviors, etc.) are inconsistent with each other (dissonance), such as the espousal of the Ten Commandments concurrent with the belief that it is all right to cheat on one's taxes, and indicating that people try to achieve consistency (consonance) by changing attitudes, rationalizing, selective perception, and other means.
See also: balance theory, consistency principle.

cognitive dissonance

n. Psychology
The psychological tension that occurs when one holds mutually exclusive beliefs or attitudes and that often motivates people to modify their thoughts or behaviors in order to reduce the tension.

cognitive dissonance

Etymology: L, cognoscere, to know, dis, opposite of, sonare, to sound
a state of tension resulting from a discrepancy in a person's emotional and intellectual frame of reference for interpreting and coping with his or her environment. It usually occurs when new information contradicts existing assumptions or knowledge.

cog·ni·tive dis·so·nance

(kog'ni-tiv dis'ŏ-năns)
A motivational state that exists when a person's attitudes, perceptions, and related cognitive state are inconsistent with each other, e.g., hating African Americans as a group but admiring Martin Luther King, Jr.

cognitive dissonance

A psychological term meaning conflict resulting from inconsistency between beliefs and actions, as of a person professing an ethical code but cheating at the Customs.

cognitive dissonance

a subjective state of psychological tension induced when a person holds two or more cognitions that are inconsistent. For example, a person might hold the cognition that they enjoy smoking whilst at the same time believing that smoking is harmful to their health. It is proposed that such dissonant states motivate one of three kinds of behaviour to reduce the dissonance: changing one of the cognitions (for example, by changing the behaviour associated with it, such as giving up smoking); dismissing the importance of one of the cognitions (for example, by telling oneself that smoking is not that bad for one's health); or by adding a justifying cognition (for example, by telling oneself that one does not smoke too much).
References in periodicals archive ?
Like depression, LSP is a negative state to be in as a salesperson and as labeling and cognitive consistency theories suggest, the salesperson may accept the notion of being a negative deviant if his/her behavior consistently falls below that of peer salespeople.
In turn, the low sales performance could hurt the salesperson's morale and mental state, thus facilitating the onset of depression, which could reinforce feelings of being a "negative deviant" and further influence the salesperson to behave more similar to his/her beliefs and feelings, as suggested by cognitive consistency theory.
This finding also seems to be supported by labeling theory and cognitive consistency theory where if one feels worse or different from peers, that individual could not only accept such a "label" but move into a downward spiral if negative consequences are further reinforced with cognitive consistency (i.
Moreover, criticality situations, when affected by level of expectation and cognitive consistency, may generate different results.
Thus, from cognitive consistency theory, different expectation levels by consumers can alter the attribution of cause in logistics customer service failures.
In accordance with cognitive consistency theory, these findings demonstrate that expectations create a buffering effect, and this effect is valid not only for pure product or pure service settings but also for mixed product and service offerings.
5) Cross-cultural scholars have identified several common organizing principles in Western culture that appear to contribute to our drive for cognitive consistency.
The present study assumes the need for cognitive consistency between social values and political evaluations, but does not assume any one causal connection.
The assumption of cognitive consistency between values, attitudes and beliefs poses a dilemma, given what is known about the structure of social values and of conservative - liberal attitudes.
Since the analogies were also used to maintain cognitive consistency, the decision-making process of the Bush administration was not rational but, according to Hybel, was located at the farthest end of the continuum at cognitive consistency theory.
And, of course, we grant the theologian, the devout layperson, and the New Age acolyte at least a modicum of the intellectual curiosity and desire for cognitive consistency exemplified by scientific inquiry.
As naturalists, our penchant for cognitive consistency blocks what philosopher Paul Kurtz calls the "transcendental temptation," so we face death without the reassurance that any trace of what we are will continue.

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