The new study builds on previous discoveries by the Farzan laboratory, which show that a co-receptor
called CCR5 contains unusual modifications in its critical HIV-binding region, and that proteins based on this region can be used to prevent infection.
cell surface protein and a chemokine co-receptor
present on the host cell.
Although the HIV virus was initially discovered to infect cells via a receptor called CD4, researchers found in 1996 that HIV infection requires a co-receptor
, usually CCR5.
It is well established that CCR5 is an essential co-receptor
required for HIV infection," said Dr.
What's more, blocking the receptor with the CCR5 antagonists Maraviroc and Vicriviroc, two drugs that slow down the spread of the HIV virus by targeting the CCR5 co-receptor
of the chemokine CCL5, also prevents migration and spread of breast cancer cells, the researchers found.
Further, the expression of HIV-1 co-receptor
molecules: CXCR4 and CCR5, and co-stimulatory molecules: CD40 and CD86 were analysed on the two DC subsets.
Trofile is a patient selection co-receptor
tropism assay that determines whether a patient is infected with a strain of HIV that uses the CCR5 co-receptor
, the CXCR4 co-receptor
, or a combination of CCR5 and CXCR4 to enter cells.
Specifically, on the cell surface, PGRP-LE exerts such effects as a co-receptor
of PGRP-LC, one of the PGRP family members.
Pfizer and Monogram to Make HIV Co-Receptor
Tropism Assay Available Globally
the Myriad Genetics BRCA1 patent, the University of Miami Canavan disease patent, the CCR5 HIV co-receptor
This article examined the central role played by co-receptor
expression and usage in the transmission and pathogenic effects of HIV-1 infection of humans.
In addition, newer agents with novel mechanisms of action, such as HIV entry inhibitors (which inhibit the three steps of HIV entry: CD4 attachment, chemokine co-receptor
binding and membrane fusion) and HIV integrase inhibitors, are also under investigation.