classical conditioning

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Related to Clasical conditioning: operant conditioning

conditioning

 [kon-dish´un-ing]
1. in physical medicine, improvement of physical health by a program of exercises; called also physical conditioning.
2. in psychology, a form of learning in which a response is elicited by a neutral stimulus which previously had been repeatedly presented in conjunction with the stimulus that originally elicited the response. Called also classical or respondent conditioning.

The concept had its beginnings in experimental techniques for the study of reflexes. The traditional procedure is based on the work of Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In this technique the experimental subject is a dog that is harnessed in a sound-shielded room. The neutral stimulus is the sound of a metronome or bell which occurs each time the dog is presented with food, and the response is the production of saliva by the dog. Eventually the sound of the bell or metronome produces salivation, even though the stimulus that originally elicited the response (the food) is no longer presented.

In the technique just described, the conditioned stimulus is the sound of the bell or metronome, and the conditioned response is the salivation that occurs when the sound is heard. The food, which was the original stimulus to salivation, is the unconditioned stimulus and the salivation that occurred when food was presented is the unconditioned response.

Reinforcement is said to take place when the conditioned stimulus is appropriately followed by the unconditioned stimulus. If the unconditioned stimulus is withheld during a series of trials, the procedure is called extinction because the frequency of the conditioned response will gradually decrease when the stimulus producing the response is no longer present. The process of extinction eventually results in a return of the preconditioning level of behavior.
aversive conditioning learning in which punishment or other unpleasant stimulation is used to associate negative feelings with an undesirable response.
classical conditioning conditioning (def. 2).
instrumental conditioning (operant conditioning) learning in which a particular response is elicited by a stimulus because that response produces desirable consequences (reward). It differs from classical conditioning in that the reinforcement takes place only after the subject performs a specific act that has been previously designated. If no unconditioned stimulus is used to bring about this act, the desired behavior is known as an operant. Once the behavior occurs with regularity the behavior may be called a conditioned response.

The traditional example of instrumental conditioning uses the Skinner box, named after B. F. Skinner, an American behavioral psychologist. The subject, a rat, is kept in the box and becomes conditioned to press a bar by being rewarded with food pellets each time its early random movements caused it to press against the bar.

The principles and techniques related to instrumental conditioning are used clinically in behavior therapy to help patients eliminate undesirable behavior and substitute for it newly learned behavior that is more appropriate and acceptable.
physical conditioning conditioning (def. 1).
respondent conditioning conditioning (def. 2).
work conditioning a physical exercise program designed to restore specific strength, flexibility, and endurance for return to work following injury, disease, or medically imposed rest; it may be part of a complete work hardening program when other aspects of functional restoration are required.

clas·si·cal con·di·tion·ing

a form of learning, as in Pavlov experiments, in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus when presented together with an unconditioned stimulus. Also called stimulus substitution because the new stimulus evokes the response in question.
See also: respondent conditioning.

classical conditioning

n. Psychology
A learning process by which a subject comes to respond in a specific way to a previously neutral stimulus after the subject repeatedly encounters the neutral stimulus together with another stimulus that already elicits the response.

classical conditioning

a form of learning in which a previously neutral stimulus begins to elicit a given response through associative training. Also called respondent conditioning. See also conditioned reflex.

clas·si·cal con·di·tion·ing

(klasi-kăl kŏn-dishŭn-ing)
Form of learning, as in Pavlov experiments, in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes conditioned when presented together with an unconditioned stimulus. Also called stimulus substitution because the new stimulus evokes the response in question.

Classical conditioning

The memory system that links perceptual information to the proper motor response. For example, Ivan Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate when a bell was rung.
Mentioned in: Amnesia

classical conditioning,

n behavioral response resulting from pairing an unrelated (conditioned) stimulus with a related (unconditioned) stimulus before a particular response is elicited. Used in diagnosis and treatment of disease by conditioning the responses of a patient to external stimuli.

clas·si·cal con·di·tion·ing

(klasi-kăl kŏn-dishŭn-ing)
A form of learning, as in pavlovian experiments, in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus when presented together with an unconditioned stimulus.

classical, classic

the first recognized form of the item; serving as a standard model or guide. See also classical conditioning, east coast fever.

classical conditioning
classical pathway
one of the two pathways of complement activation, initiated by antigen-antibody complexes and involving C1, C2 and C4. It leads to activation of C3 and the terminal pathway. See also alternate complement pathway.
classical swine fever
now the universally accepted name for hog cholera and different from African swine fever (ASF). A highly infectious disease of pigs caused by a pestivirus and characterized in its classical form by high fever, lassitude, purple discoloration of abdominal skin, conjunctivitis and nervous signs including circling, incoordination, tremor and convulsions. Most affected pigs die at 5 to 7 days with a characteristic petechiation under the kidney capsule—turkey egg kidney. There is a second form, characterized by nervous signs and caused by a strain of virus of lower virulence. Other syndromes caused by low virulence strains are reproductive inefficiency and congenital defects including myotonia congenita. Also known as congenital trembles.

conditioning

1. learning; behavior modification in animals.
2. preparation of young cattle for shipment and entry into a feedlot. The procedure varies but usually includes vaccination against potential pathogens, prophylactic treatment for worms and lice, administration of vitamins and when necessary feeding of antibiotics and introduction to the kind of diet likely to be fed.
3. tenderizing of meat by careful storage at an appropriate temperature for a sufficiently long period.

aversive conditioning
behavior modification using an adverse stimulus in response to the inappropriate or undesirable behavior. Called also avoidance.
classical conditioning
a form of learning in which a response is elicited by a neutral stimulus which previously had been repeatedly presented in conjunction with the stimulus that originally elicited the response. Called also respondent conditioning, Pavlovian conditioning.
The concept had its beginnings in experimental techniques for the study of reflexes. The traditional procedure is based on the work of Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In this technique the experimental subject is a dog that is harnessed in a sound-shielded room. The neutral stimulus is the sound of a metronome or bell which occurs each time the dog is presented with food, and the response is the production of saliva by the dog. Eventually the sound of the bell or metronome produces salivation, even though the stimulus that originally elicited the response (the food) is no longer presented.
instrumental conditioning
takes place only after the subject performs a specific act that has been previously designated. The most common form of this conditioning uses an instrument such as a bar that must be pressed by the subject to achieve the delivery of food or other reward.
odor conditioning
classical conditioning to odors of essential oils is an element in aromatherapy.
operant conditioning
learning in which a particular response is elicited by a stimulus because that response produces desirable consequences (reward).
Pavlovian conditioning
see classical conditioning (above).
respondent conditioning
see classical conditioning (above).