a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. (See Appendix 6.) Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid, constituting 90 to 95 per cent of all cations in the blood plasma and interstitial fluid; it thus determines the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. The serum sodium concentration is normally about 140 mEq/L. If the sodium level and osmolality fall, osmoreceptors
in the hypothalamus
are stimulated and cause the release of antidiuretic hormone
from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
. This hormone increases the absorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidneys so that water is conserved while sodium and other electrolytes are excreted in the urine. If the sodium level and osmolality rise, neurons in the thirst center of the hypothalamus are stimulated. The thirsty person then drinks enough water to restore the osmolality of the extracellular fluid to the normal level.
A decrease in the serum sodium concentration (hyponatremia
) can occur in a variety of conditions. It is often associated with deficient fluid volume
due to diarrhea or vomiting when water is replaced faster than sodium. It can also occur in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
, in the late stages of congestive heart failure
of the liver, in acute or chronic renal failure
, and in diuretic
therapy. An increase in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia
) occurs when insensible water loss is not replaced by drinking, as in a comatose patient with diabetes insipidus.
vitamin and nutritional supplement for parenteral administration. It is also used as an aid to deferoxamine
therapy in the treatment of chronic iron toxicity.
sodium benzoate an antifungal agent also used in a test of liver function.
, a white powder commonly found in households. It has a wide variety of uses in chemistry, in pharmaceuticals, and in consumer products. It is sometimes taken in water as a remedy for acid indigestion but should not be used regularly since when taken in excess it tends to cause alkalosis
. It can be mixed with water and applied as a paste for relief of pain in treatment of minor burns
and insect bites and stings
. A cupful in the bath water may help relieve itching caused by an allergic reaction. Called also baking soda
and bicarbonate of soda
sodium carbonate a compound now used primarily as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals; it has been used as a lotion or bath in the treatment of scaly skin, and as a detergent.
common table salt
, a necessary constituent of the body and therefore of the diet, involved in maintaining osmotic tension of blood and tissues; uses include replenishment of electrolytes in the body, irrigation of wounds and body cavities, enema, inhaled mucolytic, topical osmotic ophthalmic agent, and preparation of pharmaceuticals. Called also salt
a sodium salt of citric acid, used as an anticoagulant
for blood or plasma that is to be fractionated or for blood that is to be stored. It is also administered orally as a urinary alkalizer.
dibasic sodium phosphate
a salt of phosphoric acid
; used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte
replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative
, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones
a dental caries
preventative used in fluoridation
of drinking water or applied topically to teeth. Topical preparations include gels (sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid gel, also called APF gel) and solutions (sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical solution, also called APF solution).
sodium hydroxide NaOH, a strongly alkaline and caustic compound; used as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals.
a compound having germicidal, deodorizing, and bleaching properties; used in solution to disinfect utensils, and in diluted form (Dakin's solution
) as a local antibacterial.
a compound used as a source of iodine
sodium lactate a compound used in solution to replenish body fluids and electrolytes.
monobasic sodium phosphate 2.
a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid
; used in buffer solutions. Used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte
replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative
, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones
a dental caries
preventative applied topically to the teeth.
an antidote for cyanide poisoning
; also used as a preservative in cured meats and other foods.
an antihypertensive agent
used in the treatment of acute congestive heart failure and of hypertensive crisis and to produce controlled hypotension during surgery; also used as a reagent.
an agent used as adjunctive treatment to control the hyperammonemia
of pediatric urea cycle enzyme disorders.
a salt used as an antifungal
preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals and as a topical antifungal agent
a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. See Table 6. Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid (ECF), constituting 90 to 95% of all cations in the blood plasma and interstitial fluid; it thus determines the osmolality of the ECF.
a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
sodium acid phosphate, sodium biphosphate
used as a dietary supplement of phosphorus for ruminants when only phosphorus is required and in small animals as a urinary acidifier.
used as a feed additive to chickens and may cause arsenic poisoning if the dose rate is exceeded.
sodium antimony gluconate, sodium stibogluconate
a pentavalent antimonial used in the treatment of leishmaniasis.
used as a feed additive in the treatment of swine dysentery and in poultry and causes arsenic poisoning when dose rates are excessive.
used as a topical acaricide. See inorganic arsenic
like the arsenite, a toxic compound used as an acaricide. Less toxic and less effective than the arsenite. See also inorganic arsenic
a form of ascorbic acid; vitamin C.
used in weed control and the prevention of rot in fruit; used in serum samples to prevent bacterial overgrowth.
used topically as an antifungal agent in companion animals, with caffeine as a CNS stimulant and as a diagnostic aid in a liver function test.
a white powder found in most households in the form of baking soda; called also bicarbonate of soda. Used as a gastric antacid and as a systemic and urinary alkalinizer. See also milk shake
. Used locally to remove mucus and to remove exudates and scabs.
an organic compound yielding trivalent inorganic arsenic on metabolism in the body, similar in effects and toxicity to arsenic trioxide. Formerly used as a systemic treatment for chronic skin disease and capable of causing arsenic poisoning if used to excess.
Na2CO3⋅H2O, used as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals, and has been used as a lotion or bath in the treatment of scaly skin, and as a detergent in companion animals.
an oldfashioned herbicide which is quite palatable to farm animals and toxic in moderate amounts. Large doses cause abdominal pain, staggering and purging. Lower doses cause methemoglobinemia and dyspnea.
salt; a necessary constituent of the body and therefore of the diet; sometimes used parenterally in solution to replenish electrolytes in the body.
sodium chloride nutritional deficiency
not a common occurrence but is seen in grazing animals on sodium deficient pastures, where heavy potash fertilizer has been applied in animals that are milking heavily, growing rapidly or losing a lot of sweat. Signs include pica, e.g. drinking urine, polydipsia, polyuria and decrease in appetite, milk yield, body weight, and urinary sodium and chloride.
sodium chloride poisoning (salt poisoning)
can occur via the diet due to accidental inclusion of too much salt; is usually too unpalatable. Most common is drinking of natural saline water from bore or deep well. Causes gastroenteritis, diarrhea and dehydration most noticeable in lactating animals. Animals are restless and play with water, looking for fresh water. Water contains also magnesium, sulfate and carbonate ions. If water intake restricted and salt intake normal a relative poisoning occurs. If combined with water deprivation causes polioencephalomalacia
when the water intake returns to normal. In pigs the brain lesion is similar but because of the extensive infiltrations of eosinophils, characteristic of pigs, it is called eosinophilic meningoencephalitis.
a herbicide with very low toxicity potential.
an alkalinizing agent; used also as an in vitro anticoagulant in blood stored for transfusion or diagnostic use.
a highly toxic industrial chemical and unlikely to enter the animal food chain unless as a result of a spill of reagents or industrial waste.
a chelating agent used in the treatment for thallium poisoning; also used as an immunomodulator in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection in humans.
a white, odorless powder used at one time for the treatment of ascariasis in pigs. Has no use in veterinary medicine comparable to its use as a prophylactic against dental caries in humans. See also fluorosis
1081; causes poisoning similar to sodium fluoroacetate (below).
occurs naturally in some plants and used in agriculture as a rodenticide known as 1080. The latter is a restricted substance and is only sold on license. Two forms of poisoning occur: (1) myocardial failure resulting in sudden death in herbivora; signs are dyspnea, cardiac irregularity; (2) excitement and convulsions in pigs and dogs. Both poisonings are highly fatal. Plants containing fluoroacetate are Gastrolobium spp., Acacia georgina (gidgee), Dichapetalum spp., Palicourea spp.
is used as an insecticide in bait form for crickets and grasshoppers and as an insecticide dust for poultry. It is as toxic as sodium fluoride.
the monosodium salt of l
-glutamic acid; used in treatment of encephalopathies associated with liver diseases. Also used to enhance the flavor of foods.
maintenance of the body's sodium status at an appropriate level; effected principally by aldosterone increasing tubular resorption of sodium from the glomerular filtrate.
used in the treatment of degenerative joint disease in horses. See also hyaluronic acid
an all-purpose caustic. Its biggest use in veterinary science is to clean down fat-laden surfaces in abattoirs prior to disinfection.
a compound having germicidal, deodorizing and bleaching properties; used in solution to disinfect utensils, and in diluted form (Dakin's solution) as a local antibacterial and to irrigate wounds. A common disinfectant for a wide variety of uses in veterinary medicine, including application to cow's teats in mastitis control programs. Called also bleach.
a compound used as a source of iodine and as an expectorant. At times used parenterally in the treatment of extensive ringworm, actinobacillosis and actinomycosis. Overuse causes iodism
a compound used in solution to replenish body fluids and electrolytes.
sodium lauryl sulfate
an anionic surface-active agent used in shampoos as a detergent and wetting agent to increase skin penetration of active ingredients.
used as an antioxidant and as an aid in the making of ensilage. Also used as a preservative on meat, as a source of sulfur
a herbicide—monosodium acid methanearsonate—causes arsenic poisoning.
used in salt mixture and as pasture topdressing as a prophylaxis against chronic copper poisoning in ruminants.
see sodium fluoroacetate (above).
used in food preservation especially meat pickling and as a fertilizer. Can cause nitrate-nitrite poisoning or nitrite poisoning in ruminants.
a vasodilator; used in the treatment of cyanide poisoning. Can cause methemoglobinemia and death from anoxia.
used by local injection in horses to cause inflammation and aid healing of chronic injuries such as splints and bucked shins.
see soluble oxalate poisoning.
used as a fungicide in wood preservatives. Acute poisoning after heavy dosing causes dyspnea and death due to respiratory failure.
an oxidizing agent; used as a topical antiseptic and mouthwash.
an osmotic cathartic.
sodium-potassium-ATPase pump sodium-potassium channels sodium/potassium ratio
a low ratio, indicating hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, is characteristic of hypoadrenocorticism.
used in the prophylaxis and treatment of acetonemia in cows, and as a fungistat both topically and in preparations for animal medication.
used in the dietary management of heart disease and hypertension in dogs and cats.
an analgesic, antipyretic compound. See salicylate
used as treatment for severe nutritional deficiency of selenium. Overdose will cause poisoning by selenium
rate of excretion is used as a sensitive test of urinary function. See also sulfanilate
an osmotic cathartic; also used as a diuretic and sometimes applied topically in solution to relieve edema and pain of infected wounds. Called also Glauber's salts.
sodium sulfite test
1. precipitates protein out of solution; a dramatic test for protein in urine.
2. a turbidity test on serum for proximate estimation of gamma globulin content and immunological status of newborn calf.
called also borax; used as a weak disinfectant.
a compound used in the treatment of cyanide poisoning, and used in measuring the volume of extracellular body fluid and the renal glomerular filtration rate.
a nontoxic herbicide.