Paxidal, a sesquiterpene dialdehyde cinnamate
constituent, has been identified as a main active constituent.
The particles formed from PVCi with high cinnamates
The range contains broad UVA and UVB filters such as cinnamates
and titanium dioxide to block out UV light.
The spectra of alkyl 4-alkoxyphenyl cinnamates
are almost identical in solution to those of the analogous aryl esters suggesting the aryl esters are twisted even in solution.
, salicylates and benzophenones are small molecules that penetrate the skin and do not adequately protect against UVA.
Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and cinnamates
play their role in the prevention of many degenerative diseases (Manach et al.
This is evident in liquid crystalline polymers that contain aryl cinnamates
as the mesogenic group.
It has been estimated that coffee drinkers might ingest as much as 1 g per day of cinnamate
esters (mostly chlorogenic acid) and 500 mg per day of cinnamates
(mostly caffeic acid).
Several compounds were synthesized to model the aggregation properties of liquid crystalline polymers in which aryl cinnamates
act as both chromophores and mesogens.
Ingredients that block UVB rays include the cinnamates
, octinoxate or octyl methoxycinnamate, which are the most effective UVB absorbers, according to Graf.
Plicatin A and B, two phenolic cinnamates
from Psoralea plicata.
From a technical perspective, ultraviolet filters have been transformed from low molecular weight, narrow band spectrum filters (predominantly PABA and its esters, cinnamates
, benzophenones and salicylates) to filters designed according to the Dalton 500 rule with multiple chromophores offering both broad-spectrum as well as UVA and UVB protection.