Even the most efficient anodic inhibitors, such as lead azelate and chromates
, are not capable of maintaining passivation where the concentration of aggressive ions such as chloride ions is greater than about [10.
This process forms particles with a core made of lead chromate
sulfate and a shell of lead sulfate.
Two studies found that aneuploidy increased in normal human lung fibroblasts after a 30 h exposure to soluble chromate
with a specific increase in hypodiploid cells but no increase in hyperdiploid cells (45,46).
Color pigments include high-value Synergy pigments designed to reduce costs for formulators of industrial coatings; Meteor and Meteor Plus complex inorganic pigments for applications requiring heat resistance and exterior durability; Engeltone organic pigments in a wide spectrum of colors; Engeltone low-soluble cadmium pigments for uses requiring good heat and light stability; and Engeltone lead chromate
and moly orange pigments for cost-effective coloring.
The move to phase out lead chromates
is a landmark one as it seeks to stop the use of a toxic compound and replace it with a component that is safer to use but with the same, albeit, even more benefits to be gained," he said.
OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated the lung injury, inflammation, proliferation, and survival signaling responses after repetitive exposure to particulate chromate
There is also a consensus that water quenching or chromate
quenching stages impair the paint adhesion, therefore, the literature states that these stages must be avoided.
When a metal allergy is suspected, it's important for people to seek the medical advice of a dermatologist especially since nickel, cobalt and chromate
can all be found in some common metal objects that people may touch every day," said Dr.
We have for years been in the possession of a large portfolio of organic and inorganic pigments that represent excellent alternatives to lead chromate
pigments," said Stefan Sutterlin, head of the business management pigments ofBASFin Europe.
BASF's site in Besigheim, Germany, the location where the company exclusively produced lead chromate
pigments, is where the future production of alternative products will gradually be developed and expanded.
Inorganic pigments include ultramarine blue, violet and pink, titanium dioxide, manganese violet, synthetic iron oxide red, black and yellow, chromium oxide green, and lead chromates
Organic pigments featured include reds, blues, greens, yellows, oranges, violets, white pigments, iron oxides and mixed oxides, blue, black and silver, and cadmium sulfides and lead chromates