chorionic gonadotropin

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gonadotropin

 [go´nah-do-tro″pin]
any hormone having a stimulating effect on the gonads. Two such hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland: follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, both of which are active, but with differing effects, in the two sexes. Called also gonadotropic hormone.
chorionic gonadotropin (human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) (hCG))
1. a glycopeptide hormone that is produced by cells of the fetal placenta and maintains the function of the corpus luteum during the first few weeks of pregnancy. It is thought to promote steroidogenesis in the fetoplacental unit and to stimulate fetal testicular secretion of testosterone. It can be detected by immunoassay in the maternal urine within days after fertilization; this provides the basis for the most commonly used pregnancy test.
2. the same principle obtained from the urine of pregnant women, used in treatment of certain cases of cryptorchidism and male hypogonadism, to induce ovulation and pregnancy in certain infertile, anovulatory women, and to increase the numbers of oocytes for patients attempting conception using assisted reproductive technologies such as gamete intrafallopian transfer or in vitro fertilization; administered intramuscularly. See also choriogonadotropin alfa.

cho·ri·on·ic go·nad·o·tro·pin (CG),

a glycoprotein with a carbohydrate fraction composed of d-galactose and hexosamine, extracted from the urine of pregnant women and produced by the placental trophoblastic cells; its most important role appears to be stimulation, during the first trimester, of ovarian secretion of the estrogen and progesterone required for the integrity of conceptus; it appears to play no significant role in the last two trimesters of pregnancy, as the estrogen and progesterone are then formed by the placenta. CG has luteinizing hormone activity and exerts its actions through luteinizing hormone receptors.

chorionic gonadotropin (CG)

[kôr′ē·on′ik]
Etymology: Gk, chorion + gone, seed, trophe, nutrition
a chemical component of the urine of pregnant women and pregnant mares. This glycoprotein hormone is secreted by the placental trophoblastic cells. It is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, and helps maintain the corpus luteum during pregnancy. The alpha subunit is nearly identical to follicle-stimulating, luteinizing, and thyroid-stimulating hormones. The specific hormonal effects of chorionic gonadotropin are activated by the beta portion. They include stimulation of the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone and to decrease lymphocyte activation. Chorionic gonadotropin is also administered in the treatment of some cases of cryptorchidism and male hypogonadism and in the induction of ovulation in some infertile women. Also called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). See also gonadotropin.

chorionic gonadotropin

Human chorionic gonadotrophin A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, which supports pregnancy Components α-hGH 14.5 kD; β-hGH 22.2 kD. See FSH, Gonadotropin, LH.
Chorionic gonadotropin levels–post conception
Weeks IU/L
1 wks 5-50
2 wks 40-1000
3 wks 100-4000
4 wks 800-10,000
5-6 wks 5000-100,000
8 wks 20,000-200,000
9-12 wks 10,000-200,000
2nd trimester 8,000-50,000
3rd trimester 6,000-50,000

cho·ri·on·ic go·nad·o·tro·pin

(kōr'ē-on'ik gō-nad'ō-trō'pin)
A glycoprotein with a carbohydrate fraction composed of d-galactose and hexosamine, produced by the placental trophoblastic cells; its most important role appears to be stimulation (during the first trimester) of ovarian secretion of the estrogen and progesterone required for the integrity of the conceptus; it appears to play no significant role in the last two trimesters of pregnancy, because the estrogen and progesterone are then formed by the placenta. Testing for the beta fraction of human chorionic gonadotropin is the basis for most serum and urine pregnancy tests.
Synonym(s): anterior pituitarylike hormone, chorionic gonadotropic hormone, chorionic gonadotrophic hormone.

cho·ri·on·ic go·nad·o·tro·pin

(kōr'ē-on'ik gō-nad'ō-trō'pin)
Glycoprotein with carbohydrate fraction composed of d-galactose and hexosamine, extracted from the urine of pregnant women.

chorionic

pertaining to the chorion.

chorionic girdle
a circular band of cells of placental origin that invade the endometrium and form the endometrial cups in the mare.
chorionic girdle cells
see chorionic girdle (above).
chorionic gonadotropin
a hormone with properties similar to those of luteinizing hormone; it is secreted in large amounts by the placenta during gestation. It stimulates the formation of interstitial cells in the testes of the fetus and causes the secretion of testosterone. It is found in substantial amounts in the urine of pregnant mares (pregnant mares serum gonadotropin—PMSG) and pregnant women (human chorionic gonadotropin—HCG). It is used as an aid in the treatments to induce ovulation and the synchronization of estrus.
chorionic somatomammotropin
see placental lactogen.
chorionic vesicle
the early embryonic vesicle before the allantois has developed and encircled the embryo to form the chorioallantoic vesicle and supplant it.

gonadotropin

any hormone having a stimulating effect on the gonads. Two such hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary: follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, both of which are active, but with differing effects, in the two sexes.

chorionic gonadotropin
a gonad-stimulating hormone produced by cytotrophoblastic cells of the placenta; used in treatment of underdevelopment of the gonads and to induce ovulation. See also pregnancy tests.
gonadotropin release inhibiting factor
pituitary hormone which inhibits the release of luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone.
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