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Chloride ions from deicing salts are the main culprit responsible for the premature deterioration of reinforced concrete bridge decks because they can induce corrosion of the reinforcing steel.
We have represented our system as a 208 atom cluster consisting of a top hexagonal layer of 33 chloride ions, a middle layer of 33 copper atoms and five hexagonal layers of gold atoms which contained 142 gold atoms in total.
This helps draw the negatively charged chloride ions into the channel and through to the cell's interior.
In preclinical studies sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, CPX repaired the two basic CFTR protein-associated defects that cause cystic fibrosis in most patients: (1) it improved the impaired chloride ion transport and (2) it enabled the defective CFTR to reach the epithelial cell membrane (a process called "trafficking").
ATLANTA -- A study conducted by the Duke University Clinical Research Institute found that women's ability to predict her fertility is enhanced by new technology that senses chloride ions in a woman's skin.
This protein makes up part of a kidney channel responsible for controlling the secretion of chloride ions into the urine, an important process in maintaining the proper balance of salt and water in the body.
coli can force intestinal cells to spew chloride ions into the intestinal interior.
One of the current standard test methods used to assess the resistance of concrete to penetration of chloride ions is the rapid chloride permeability test.
Normally, the protein encoded by this gene is found in the respiratory passageways, pancreas, salivary and sweat glands, where it helps to regulate the cellular concentration of chloride ions and water.
The normal function of a cell is to pass chloride ions across the cell membrane at a very fast speed," Hwang said.
A major cause of concrete deterioration (cracking, delamination, and spalling) is the corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement, initiated by chloride ions from deicing and saltwater spray that have penetrated the concrete cover.
Cystic fibrosis is caused by a defect in a protein that transports chloride ions across the membrane of epithelial cells lining certain organs in the body.