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Chlamydia trachomatisSTD A human pathogen, similar to gonorrhea in transmission and disease; it is found in the cervix and urethra and survives in the throat or rectum Epidemiology It is the most common STD agent in the US–causing ± 4.5 million cases/yr; it is present in 1-3% of all ♂ and 15-40% of ♀ in STD clinics Clinical Inclusion conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, urethritis, epididymitis and proctitis in ♂, mucopurulent cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis–C trachomatis is implicated in 50% of salpingitis and PID, bartholinitis, and acute urethral syndrome in ♀ and conjunctivitis and pneumonia in neonates; infection may be asymptomatic Diagnosis Direct fluorescent antibody staining, solid phase immunoassay, ELISA, cell culture, nucleic acid probe, PCR Complications Fallopian tube destruction, ±infertility, ectopic/tubal pregnancy, preterm delivery, severe PID Management Doxycycline, azithromycin. Cf Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Chla·myd·i·a tra·cho·ma·tis(klă-mi'dē-a trak-ō'mă-tis)
C. trachomatis is a commonly sexually transmitted pathogen (causing more than a million chlamydial infections in the U.S. each year). Men with chlamydial infection experience penile discharge and discomfort while urinating. Women may be asymptomatic or may experience urethral or vaginal discharge, painful or frequent urination, lower abdominal pain, or acute pelvic inflammatory disease, which may result in infertility.
Transmission of the disease can be prevented by avoiding contact with infected people and by using condoms during intimate sex. A pregnant woman with a chlamydial infection can transmit the disease to her newborn during birth. In newborns, ophthalmic antibiotic solution should be instilled in the conjunctival sac of each eye to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis and blindness caused by Chlamydia.
Several tests are available, including cultures, antigen detection assays, ligase chain reactions, polymerase chain reactions, and enzyme-linked immunoassays.
Erythromycin, azithromycin, or tetracycline is effective.