chemical warfare

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chemical warfare

the waging of war with poisonous chemicals and gases.
The use of chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, deployed as gases; the tremendous morbidity caused by such weapons in World War I—killing or injuring roughly 1.3 million soldiers—led to their ban under the ‘Geneva Protocol’ of 1925

chemical warfare

Waging war with toxic chemical agents. Agents include nerve gases; agents that cause temporary blindness, paralysis, hallucinations, or deafness; irritants to the eyes and lungs; blistering agents, e.g., mustard gas; defoliants; and herbicides.

Patient care

Victims of a chemical exposure or attack require decontamination, ideally on site as rapidly as possible by specially equipped and trained Emergency Medical Services (EMS)/fire personnel or hospital-based health care professionals. Decontamination includes isolation of the victim, preferably outdoors or in a sealed, specially ventilated room; removal of all of the victim's clothing and jewelry; protection of any part of the victim's body that has not been exposed to toxins; repeated irrigation and flushing of exposed skin with water (a dilute wound-cleansing solution, such as Dakin’s solution, may be used on skin but not on the eyes or within penetrating wounds); additional irrigation of wounded skin with sterile solution (typically for about 10 min longer than the irrigation of intact skin); irrigation of the eyes with saline solution (about 15 min); cleansing beneath the surface of exposed fingernails or toenails; and collection and disposal of effluent and contaminated clothing. To avoid secondary injuries and exposures, trained personnel who carry out decontamination must wear chemical masks with a filtered respirator, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), and splash-resistant protective clothing that covers all skin and body surfaces and is impervious to all chemicals. Following decontamination, victims require triage and treatment.

Treatments for chemical exposures include both supportive care (such as the administration of oxygen, intravenous fluids, analgesics, topical remedies, and psychosocial support) and the administration of antidotes or chemical antagonists such as physostigmine. Details of the treatment for most specific exposures may be found in references such as the National Library of Medicine’s website: www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/Tox/ChemWar.html. See: biological warfare.

chemical

1. pertaining to chemistry.
2. a substance composed of chemical elements, or obtained by chemical processes. See also toxin.

chemical adjuvant
a chemical added to another to improve its activity. For example, mineral gels added to vaccines. May also be a chemical added to feed to improve digestion, e.g. monensin in ruminants. These are more commonly referred to as additives. See also adjuvant.
agricultural chemical
chemical used in agriculture. Includes pesticides, anthelmintics, fertilizers, algaecides, herbicides, soil fumigants and the like.
chemical environment
that part of the animals' environment that is composed of chemicals. For farm livestock this includes fertilizers, defoliants, worm drenches, insect sprays, adjuvants to feed. For companion animals see household chemical (below).
household chemical
the roster of chemicals that one can expect to find in the average household. Includes insect sprays and repellents, snail bait, rodenticide, garden sprays, human medicines and the like.
chemical pneumonitis
results from aspiration of gastric acids.
chemical senses
see olfaction (2), taste.
chemical shearing
causing the fleece of sheep to be shed by the administration of a chemical substance to the sheep. Cyclophosphamide and mimosine have been used experimentally but there is no commercially available system.
chemical spoilage
occurs in preserved foods, especially canned ones. Is usually the result of interaction between the contents and an imperfect container. There may be gas produced, e.g. hydrogen swells, or discoloration of the tin.
chemical warfare
agents used include: (1) systemic poisons, e.g. hydrocyanic acid; (2) lung irritants, e.g. chlorine, phosgene; (3) lacrimators (weeping stimulators), e.g. CN, CAP, CS; (4) sternutators (sneeze stimulators); (5) vesicants, e.g. mustards, nitrogen mustards, arsenic mustards and nettle gases; (6) nerve gases, e.g. organophosphorus compounds.
References in periodicals archive ?
We are very interested in the new technologies DARPA is pursuing in the ACDC program, which could enable environmentally safe, cost-effective onsite destruction of chemical warfare agents anywhere in the world.
While the degraded chemical warfare agents that are stored in the bunkers may no longer be suitable for conventional military use, the remnants could represent a valid hybrid risk.
Riegle's report also confirms that the alarms used in the war to warn troops of the presence of chemical warfare agents sounded thousands of times.
There are suggestions that gulf war illness; in which symptoms are long-lasting, may be related to exposure to low-dose chemical warfare agents," said Morris.
Certainly it would be easier to obtain (or steal) industrial chemicals than manufacture chemical warfare agents, but again, we haven't seen that happen.
Bulk destruction of chemical warfare agents is a challenge for the defense and global community.
The Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency oversaw computer simulations of the possible release of chemical warfare agents and gave this data to the Presidential Advisory Committee, which started a media blitz questioning DOD's previous claims that no military personnel were exposed to chemical warfare agents in the Gulf.
Destroying chemical warfare agents in bulk is a challenge for the military and international community.
89 million contract by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) to develop and test new, small molecule compounds for use as antidotes to chemical warfare agents.
use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry to rapidly identify chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals and homemade explosives.
NASDAQ:ABBI), today announced that it has signed a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD) to evaluate Cenomed's lead investigational compound CM-2,501 and other associated compounds, for the prevention of toxicities following exposure to chemical warfare agents.
ICAM clearly meets the DoD's requirement for a highly advanced hand-held chemical warfare agent monitor that can quickly confirm the presence or absence of contamination by these lethal agents.

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