chemical warfare

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Related to Chemical agents: chemical terrorism, Chemical weapons

chemical warfare

the waging of war with poisonous chemicals and gases.
The use of chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, deployed as gases; the tremendous morbidity caused by such weapons in World War I—killing or injuring roughly 1.3 million soldiers—led to their ban under the ‘Geneva Protocol’ of 1925

chemical warfare

Waging war with toxic chemical agents. Agents include nerve gases; agents that cause temporary blindness, paralysis, hallucinations, or deafness; irritants to the eyes and lungs; blistering agents, e.g., mustard gas; defoliants; and herbicides.

Patient care

Victims of a chemical exposure or attack require decontamination, ideally on site as rapidly as possible by specially equipped and trained Emergency Medical Services (EMS)/fire personnel or hospital-based health care professionals. Decontamination includes isolation of the victim, preferably outdoors or in a sealed, specially ventilated room; removal of all of the victim's clothing and jewelry; protection of any part of the victim's body that has not been exposed to toxins; repeated irrigation and flushing of exposed skin with water (a dilute wound-cleansing solution, such as Dakin’s solution, may be used on skin but not on the eyes or within penetrating wounds); additional irrigation of wounded skin with sterile solution (typically for about 10 min longer than the irrigation of intact skin); irrigation of the eyes with saline solution (about 15 min); cleansing beneath the surface of exposed fingernails or toenails; and collection and disposal of effluent and contaminated clothing. To avoid secondary injuries and exposures, trained personnel who carry out decontamination must wear chemical masks with a filtered respirator, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), and splash-resistant protective clothing that covers all skin and body surfaces and is impervious to all chemicals. Following decontamination, victims require triage and treatment.

Treatments for chemical exposures include both supportive care (such as the administration of oxygen, intravenous fluids, analgesics, topical remedies, and psychosocial support) and the administration of antidotes or chemical antagonists such as physostigmine. Details of the treatment for most specific exposures may be found in references such as the National Library of Medicine’s website: www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/Tox/ChemWar.html. See: biological warfare.

chemical

1. pertaining to chemistry.
2. a substance composed of chemical elements, or obtained by chemical processes. See also toxin.

chemical adjuvant
a chemical added to another to improve its activity. For example, mineral gels added to vaccines. May also be a chemical added to feed to improve digestion, e.g. monensin in ruminants. These are more commonly referred to as additives. See also adjuvant.
agricultural chemical
chemical used in agriculture. Includes pesticides, anthelmintics, fertilizers, algaecides, herbicides, soil fumigants and the like.
chemical environment
that part of the animals' environment that is composed of chemicals. For farm livestock this includes fertilizers, defoliants, worm drenches, insect sprays, adjuvants to feed. For companion animals see household chemical (below).
household chemical
the roster of chemicals that one can expect to find in the average household. Includes insect sprays and repellents, snail bait, rodenticide, garden sprays, human medicines and the like.
chemical pneumonitis
results from aspiration of gastric acids.
chemical senses
see olfaction (2), taste.
chemical shearing
causing the fleece of sheep to be shed by the administration of a chemical substance to the sheep. Cyclophosphamide and mimosine have been used experimentally but there is no commercially available system.
chemical spoilage
occurs in preserved foods, especially canned ones. Is usually the result of interaction between the contents and an imperfect container. There may be gas produced, e.g. hydrogen swells, or discoloration of the tin.
chemical warfare
agents used include: (1) systemic poisons, e.g. hydrocyanic acid; (2) lung irritants, e.g. chlorine, phosgene; (3) lacrimators (weeping stimulators), e.g. CN, CAP, CS; (4) sternutators (sneeze stimulators); (5) vesicants, e.g. mustards, nitrogen mustards, arsenic mustards and nettle gases; (6) nerve gases, e.g. organophosphorus compounds.
References in periodicals archive ?
TM 3-6665-321-12&P, Operator's and Unit Maintenance Manual (Including Repair Parts and Special Tools List) for Alarm, Chemical Agent, Automatic: M22 (NSN: 666501-438-6963) (EIC: Y14) and Auxiliary Equipment Power Supply, Chemical Agent Automatic Alarm: M28 (NSN: 6130-01-438-6960) (EIC: Y40) Mounting Kit, Chemical Agent Automatic Alarm: M281 (NSN: 6665-01-438-6959) (EIC: Y38) Alarm Unit, Chemical Agent Automatic Alarm: ABCA-M42 (NSN: 6665-00-859-2215) (EIC: 399).
A review of military records ordered by US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel following The New York Times' revelations showed that 629 US troops had reported being exposed to chemical agents, the newspaper said, citing a spokesperson for the US Army's surgeon general.
Successful elimination of a 600-ton cache of chemical agents aboard the Cape Ray was announced by the U.
No chemical agents were used during the Second World War, leaving Canada with a large stockpile at the end of the conflict.
The source, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said between four and five members came into contact with chemical agents while searching a group of rebel tunnels in the Damascus suburb of Jobar over the weekend.
Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) was designed to withstand highly caustic and corrosive cleaning agents in the event a vehicle was contaminated with a chemical agent.
Handbook of nuclear, biological, and chemical agent exposures.
As of 2 February, the Army had destroyed 11,076 tons of chemical agents, or about 35.
An afterburner will heat resulting exhaust gases to 2,000 degrees E to ensure destruction of any remaining traces of chemical agents before the air enters the Pollution Abatement System for further filtering and treatment.
This technology can be used in many ways, including detection of chemical warfare agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and other chemical agents that may be used by terrorists," said Pompeii, head of the NSWCDD Chemical-Biological (CB) Defense Division.
The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) has already developed guidelines on the use of authorized pharmaceuticals in case of deliberate release of biologic and chemical agents (available from: URL: http://www.

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