charbon


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anthrax

(an'thraks),
Infection by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which in humans is caused by contact with infected animals or animal products, and ingestion or inhalation of spores of the bacterium. Worldwide concern is focused on the potential use of anthrax as a bioterrorist weapon, in particular as an inhalational agent. The most common naturally occurring form of human anthrax is the cutaneous, and both the inhalational and gastrointestinal forms are quite rare. Anthrax in animals occurs throughout the world, primarily in herbivores, especially cattle, horses, goats, and sheep.
Synonym(s): charbon

anthrax

An often fatal bacterial infection that occurs when Bacillus anthracis endospores (primarily of grazing herbivorous—cattle, sheep, horses, mules—origin) enter via skin abrasions, inhalation or orally.

Diagnosis
ELISA for capsule antigens (95+% senstivity) and protective antigens (72% sensitivity); detection of exotoxins in blood is unreliable.
 
Prevention
Prophylaxis (six weeks) with doxycycline or ciprofloxacin; vaccination with anthrax vaccine absorbed; decontamination with aerosolised formalin.
 
Management
Penicillin, doxycycline; chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin if (allergic to penicillin).

Anthrax, clinical forms 
Inhalation (Anthrax pneumonia, inhalational anthrax, pulmonary anthrax)
An almost universally fatal form due to inhalation of 1 to 2 µm pathogenic endospores, which are deposited in alveoli, engulfed by macrophages and germinate en route to the mediasitinal and peribronchial lymph nodes, producing toxins.
 
Clinical
Mediastinal widening, pleural effusions, fever, nonproductive cough, myalgia, malaise, haemorrhage, cyanosis, SOB, stridor, shock, death; often accompanied by mesenteric lymphadenitis, diffuse abdominal pain and fever.
 
Cutaneous
Once common among handlers of infected animals (e.g., farmers, wool-sorters, tanners, brushmakers and carpetmakers).
 
Clinical
Carbuncle, a cluster of boils that later ulcerates, resulting in a hard black centre surrounded by bright red inflammation; rare cases that become systemic are almost 100% fatal.
 
Gastrointestinal
After ingesting contaminated meat (2 to 5 days); once ingested, spores germinate, causing ulceration, haemorrhagic and necrotising gastroenteritis.
 
Clinical
Fever, diffuse abdominal pain with rebound tenderness, melanic stools, coffee grounds vomit, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, shock; death is due to intestinal perforation or anthrax toxemia.

Oropharyngeal
Uncommon; follows ingestion of contaminated meat.
 
Clinical
Cervical oedema, lymphadenopathy (causing dysphagia), respiratory difficulty.

Anthrax meningitis
A rare, usually fatal complication of GI or inhalation anthrax, with death occurring 1 to 6 days after onset of illness.
 
Clinical
Meningeal symptoms, nuchal rigidity, fever, fatigue, myalgia, headache, nausea, vomiting, agitation, seizures, delirium, followed by neurologic degeneration and death.

charbon

[Fr.] see anthrax.
References in periodicals archive ?
De grandes manifestations pacifiques se sont succ[euro]u[c]d[euro]u[c]es pour demander des "alternatives [euro]u[c]conomiques" [euro]u la seule activit[euro]u[c] locale, l'extraction de charbon dans les "mines de la mort".
En prenant la peine de situer l'evolution de la pensee medicale occidentale sur la silice (silicose) et sur la poussiere de charbon (pneumoconiose)--la premiere etant consideree, a l'epoque de la Premiere Guerre mondiale, comme un facteur majeur des maladies pulmonaires tandis que l'autre semblait jouer un role negligeable--, Menendez-Navaro permet de mieux comprendre les preoccupations des entreprises auriferes canadiennes de cette epoque alors que s'amorce le developpement minier du Nord ontarien.
However, another map (Franquelin 1702) has the label Ance au Charbon ("Coal Cove") adjacent to the coastal outcrop belt of the coal-bearing strata at present day Joggins (Fig.
Les soirs illumine's par I'ardeur du charbon, the title taken from Baudelaire's "Le balcon" which Debussy had set in 1888 in his Cinq poemes de Boudelaire.
Of great importance to our study, Balzac, in the second part of this article, compares the artist's process of creation to the moment of purification recounted in Isaiah 6 ("il arrive qu'un charbon ardent touche ce crane" [CEuvres diverses 2: 710]).
Forme viscerale de charbon humain importee d'Afrique.
First, Secretive gets the better of Gold Case in the mile handicap and then Royal Helen beats Paddy Charbon in the sprint handicap.
C'est a l'interieur des maisonnees que se creent les equipes pour exploiter l'environnement, comme dans le cas d'un groupe pour la construction et la surveillance d'un four a charbon ou l'organisation de repas pour touristes.
Springvale, lies near Lithgow in the Blue Mountains, Centennial already has coal assets in the Lithgow area, including the Airly, Charbon, Clarence and Ivanhoe operations.
Il arrive que des artefacts de charbon soient mis a jour lors de fouilles archeologiques dans les sites de peuplement de la culture Thule (v.
were Dabit's Hotel du Nord (1929), Femme sans peche (1931) by Lemonnier, Sans a me (1928) and Le Charbon ardent (1929) by Therive, and Guilloux's Le Pain des reves.