granule cell

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granule cell

1. Any of the small neurons that pack the granular cell layer of the cerebellar cortex, immediately below the Purkinje cell layer. Granule cells receive inputs (mossy fibers) from the spinal cord and brainstem (except the inferior olive). Axons of granule cells run perpendicular to the Purkinje cell dendrites, on which they synapse.
2. Any of the neurons of the cerebral cortex that are not pyramidal cells. Cortical granule cells are categorized as spiny or nonspiny. Synonym: stellate cell
3. A small axon-less neuron found in the olfactory bulb.
See also: cell


1. a small particle or grain.
2. a small pill made of sucrose.

acidophil g's
granules staining with acid dyes.
aleuronoid g's
colorless myeloid colloidal bodies found in the base of pigment cells.
alpha g's
1. oval granules found in blood platelets; they are lysosomes containing acid phosphatase.
2. large granules in the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans; they secrete glucagon.
3. acidophilic granules in the alpha cells of the adenohypophysis.
amphophil g's
granules that stain with both acid and basic dyes.
azur g's, azurophil g's
granules that stain easily with azure dyes; they are coarse, reddish granules and are seen in many lymphocytes.
basophil g's
granules staining with basic dyes.
beta g's
1. granules in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin.
2. basophilic granules in the beta cells of the adenohypophysis.
granule cell
the largest group of cells produced by the external germinal layer on the external surface of the embryonal cerebellum; they form the thick granular layer of the cerebellum; called also granule neurons.
chromatic g's, chromophilic g's
see nissl bodies.
cone g's
the nuclei of the visual cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina which are connected with the cones.
eosinophil g's
those staining with eosin. See also alpha granules (above).
epsilon granule
see neutrophil granules (below).
Grawitz's g's
minute granules seen in the erythrocytes in the basophilia of lead poisoning.
iodophil g's
granules staining brown with iodine, seen in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in various acute infectious diseases.
keratohyalin granule
keratin precursor; in the stratum granulosum of the epithelium.
metachromatic g's
granules present in mast cells and many bacterial cells, having an avidity for basic dyes and causing irregular staining of the cell.
mitochondrial g's
organelles in osteoblasts through which temporary calcium ion sequestration can be effected.
granule neurons
see granule cell (above).
neutrophil g's
neutrophilic granules from the protoplasm of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; called also epsilon granules.
Nissl's g's
see nissl bodies.
oxyphil g's
acidophil granules.
pigment g's
small masses of coloring matter in pigment cells.
primary g's
the peroxidase-positive granules of neutrophils, most prominent in the progranulocyte and early myelocyte stages.
rod g's
the nuclei of the visual cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina which are connected with the rods.
secondary g's
the peroxidase-negative ('specific') granules seen in mature neutrophils.
seminal g's
the small granular bodies in the semen.
sulfur g's
see sulfur granule.
toxic g's
dark-staining granules in neutrophils that contain peroxidase and acid hydrolases. They occur in inflammatory reactions.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E and vitamin E mitigate ethanol-mediated effects on cerebellar granule cell antioxidant defense systems.
Molecular mechanisms of cerebellar granule cell proliferation and medulloblastoma University of Rochester, Rochester, New York Principal Investigator: Steven A.
Mouse cerebellar granule cell cultures were treated with MAM (100 [micro]M) or HN2 (1.
Extracellular calcium is required for the polychlorinated biphenyl-induced increase of intracellular free calcium levels in cerebellar granule cell culture.
A] receptors subunits expression and chloride influx were investigated in cultured cerebellar granule cells.
Protection against MPP+ neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells by antioxidants.
2+] homeostasis, increasing its intracellular level in a number of experimental situations, including primary culture of cerebellar granule cells.
SDF-1, a chemokine with a G protein coupled receptor, or BDNF, act as chemoattractants for cerebellar granule cells, with SDF-1 action being selectively inhibited by soluble EphB receptor.
In contrast to our findings, the technical PBDE mixture DE-71 (> 20 [micro]M) caused cell death in rat cerebellar granule cells (Reistad et al.
sinensis water extract and its phenolic and alkaloid compounds have protective effects against glutamate- and NO donor-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (Shimada et al.
Ethanol inhibits L1-mediated neurite outgrowth in postnatal rat cerebellar granule cells.
Interestingly, addition of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 protects cerebellar granule cells against DE-71-induced cell death (Reistad et al.