granule cell

(redirected from Cerebellar granule cell)

granule cell

1. Any of the small neurons that pack the granular cell layer of the cerebellar cortex, immediately below the Purkinje cell layer. Granule cells receive inputs (mossy fibers) from the spinal cord and brainstem (except the inferior olive). Axons of granule cells run perpendicular to the Purkinje cell dendrites, on which they synapse.
2. Any of the neurons of the cerebral cortex that are not pyramidal cells. Cortical granule cells are categorized as spiny or nonspiny. Synonym: stellate cell
3. A small axon-less neuron found in the olfactory bulb.
See also: cell

granule

1. a small particle or grain.
2. a small pill made of sucrose.

acidophil g's
granules staining with acid dyes.
aleuronoid g's
colorless myeloid colloidal bodies found in the base of pigment cells.
alpha g's
1. oval granules found in blood platelets; they are lysosomes containing acid phosphatase.
2. large granules in the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans; they secrete glucagon.
3. acidophilic granules in the alpha cells of the adenohypophysis.
amphophil g's
granules that stain with both acid and basic dyes.
azur g's, azurophil g's
granules that stain easily with azure dyes; they are coarse, reddish granules and are seen in many lymphocytes.
basophil g's
granules staining with basic dyes.
beta g's
1. granules in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin.
2. basophilic granules in the beta cells of the adenohypophysis.
granule cell
the largest group of cells produced by the external germinal layer on the external surface of the embryonal cerebellum; they form the thick granular layer of the cerebellum; called also granule neurons.
chromatic g's, chromophilic g's
see nissl bodies.
cone g's
the nuclei of the visual cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina which are connected with the cones.
eosinophil g's
those staining with eosin. See also alpha granules (above).
epsilon granule
see neutrophil granules (below).
Grawitz's g's
minute granules seen in the erythrocytes in the basophilia of lead poisoning.
iodophil g's
granules staining brown with iodine, seen in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in various acute infectious diseases.
keratohyalin granule
keratin precursor; in the stratum granulosum of the epithelium.
metachromatic g's
granules present in mast cells and many bacterial cells, having an avidity for basic dyes and causing irregular staining of the cell.
mitochondrial g's
organelles in osteoblasts through which temporary calcium ion sequestration can be effected.
granule neurons
see granule cell (above).
neutrophil g's
neutrophilic granules from the protoplasm of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; called also epsilon granules.
Nissl's g's
see nissl bodies.
oxyphil g's
acidophil granules.
pigment g's
small masses of coloring matter in pigment cells.
primary g's
the peroxidase-positive granules of neutrophils, most prominent in the progranulocyte and early myelocyte stages.
rod g's
the nuclei of the visual cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina which are connected with the rods.
secondary g's
the peroxidase-negative ('specific') granules seen in mature neutrophils.
seminal g's
the small granular bodies in the semen.
sulfur g's
see sulfur granule.
toxic g's
dark-staining granules in neutrophils that contain peroxidase and acid hydrolases. They occur in inflammatory reactions.
References in periodicals archive ?
A study of cerebellar granule cell migration revealed that the amplitude and frequency components of [Ca.
Conglutination of the cerebellar granule cell layer in cattle
In the vertebrate brain, the density of the cerebellar granule cell layer is, for reference, 3-7 X [10.
Molecular mechanisms of cerebellar granule cell proliferation and medulloblastoma University of Rochester, Rochester, New York Principal Investigator: Steven A.
14) have convincingly demonstrated productive JCV infection of cerebellar granule cell neurons in an HIV-infected patient.
Mouse cerebellar granule cell cultures were treated with MAM (100 [micro]M) or HN2 (1.
Extracellular calcium is required for the polychlorinated biphenyl-induced increase of intracellular free calcium levels in cerebellar granule cell culture.
Although they expected the activity in cerebellar granule cells would be related to planning and executing arm movements (in this case, while pushing levers), they found that some cells fired even when the mice were waiting for their rewards (sugar water).
Although in this study the mechanisms underlying the reductions in the number of cerebellar granule cells and decrease in the size of perikaryon of purkinje cells were not investigated, however, it is known that glucocorticoids easily cross the blood-brain barrier and acts on CNS.
In the cerebellum, the loss of GABAergic inhibition may decrease tonic inhibition in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs), leading to ataxia in Angelman syndrome [20].
Heterotopic cerebellar granule cells inside the plexiform layer.
The disease was confirmed when immunohistochemistry demonstrated preservation of Purkinje cells, and in situ PCR revealed selective depletion of cerebellar granule cells and JCV infection of granule cell neurons.