centromere

(redirected from Centromeres)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

centromere

 [sen´tro-mēr]
the clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division. adj., adj centromer´ic.
 Position of the centromere in A, metacentric, B, submetacentric, C, acrocentric, and D, telocentric chromosomes. From Dorland's, 2000.

cen·tro·mere

(sen'trō-mēr),
1. The nonstaining primary constriction of a chromosome that is the point of attachment of the spindle fiber; provides the mechanism of chromosome movement during cell division; the centromere divides the chromosome into two arms, and its position is constant for a specific chromosome: near one end (acrocentric), near the center (metacentric), or between (submetacentric).
[centro- + G. meros, part]

centromere

/cen·tro·mere/ (-mēr) the clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.centromer´ic
Enlarge picture
Position of the centromere in (A) metacentric; (B) submetacentric; (C) acrocentric; and (D) telocentric chromosomes.

centromere

(sĕn′trə-mîr′)
n.
The most condensed and constricted region of a chromosome, to which the spindle fiber is attached during mitosis.

cen′tro·mer′ic (-mĕr′ĭk, -mîr′-) adj.

centromere (cen)

[sen′trəmir]
Etymology: Gk, kentron + meros, part
the constricted region of a chromosome that joins the two chromatids to each other and attaches to spindle fibers in mitosis and meiosis. During cell division the centromeres split longitudinally, half going to each of the new daughter chromosomes. The position of the centromere is constant for a specific chromosome and is identified as acrocentric, metacentric, submetacentric, or telocentric. Also called kinetochore, kinomere, primary constriction. centromeric, adj.

centromere

(1) An obsolete term for the neck of the sprematozoon. 
(2) Centromere; centromerus [NH3].

cen·tro·mere

(sen'trō-mēr)
The nonstaining primary constriction of a chromosome; the centromere divides the chromosome into two arms and its position is constant for a specific chromosome: near one end (acrocentric), near the center (metacentric), or between (submetacentric).
[centro- + G. meros, part]

centromere

The constriction in a chromosome at which the two identical halves (chromatids) of the newly longitudinally-divided chromosome are joined, and at which the chromosome attaches to the spindle fibre during division (mitosis). The centromere contains no genes.

centromere

a structure occurring at one point along the length of a CHROMOSOME, often visible under the light microscope as a bump or a constriction whose location can help to identify the chromosome. The centromere contains a complex system of fibres called the kinetochore which becomes duplicated when the chromosomes divide into CHROMATIDS. The kinetochore attaches to SPINDLE microtubules during nuclear division. Damaged chromosomes without centromeres (ACENTRIC CHROMOSOMES) fail to move normally during nuclear division.

Centromere

The centromere is the constricted region of a chromosome. It performs certain functions during cell division.

centromere

primary constriction of a chromosome dividing it into two arms

centromere

the clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
References in periodicals archive ?
This species is a model organism in cell biology because its chromosome replication and the regulation of its centromere are similar to that of humans.
Common immunofluorescence antinuclear antibodies patterns associated with specific diseases (6) ANA Antigen Associated pattern diseases Speckled ENA, RNP, Sm, SLE, MCTD, Ro/SSA, Systemic La/SSB, sclerosis, Scl-70, Jo-1, Sjogren's ribosomal-P syndrome, PM Homogenous dsDNA, SLE, Histones Drug-induced SLE Peripheral RNP, Sm, SLE, Systemic (rim) Ro/SSA sclerosis Nucleolar Anti-PM-Scl, Systemic anti-RNA sclerosis, polymerase PM I-III, anti-U3- RNP, To RNP Centromere CENP A-E Limited systemic sclerosis ENA: Extractable nuclear antigens; RNP: Ribonucleoproteins; SLE: Systemic lupus erythematosus; MCTD Mixed connective tissue disease; PM: Polymyositis; dsDNA: Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid; CENP Centromere protein.
The researchers were also surprised to find on horse chromosome 11 the existence of an evolutionarily new centromere.
2005) have analyzed diffuse centromeres with centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) using immunoprecipitation.
These findings are significant because it demonstrates that the methods originally used to identify the centromere region in Arabidopsis are fast and flexible," said Anthony J.
Objective: Accurate chromosome segregation in eukaryotes requires the assembly of the macromolecular kinetochore complex at centromeres to attach chromosomes to the mitotic spindle.
This structured reference intended for a wide audience of students and researchers introduces epigenetics and epigenetic methods in 16 contributed chapters covering such topics as early life environment, murine models of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, centromeres and telomeres, histones (dosage and degradation), DNA methylation changes in cancer, and variant histones H2A and cancer development, among other topics.
While not unique cytologically, the Cyperaceae exhibit three distinctive chromosome traits that are highly unusual among angiosperms: (1) production of a single pollen grain (pseudomonad) per pollen mother cell, (2) post-reductional meiosis, and (3) diffuse centromeres.
We examined at least 100 well-spread metaphases with 46 [+ or -] 1 centromeres per donor on coded slides (10,20).
Gaps exist in both chromosome sequences around the knoblike centromeres.
Centromeres are specialized regions of DNA that are essential for the proper control of chromosome distribution during cell division.
How centromeres are established and maintained is however still an open question in the field.