36] Recent studies have examined the role of cellular adhesion molecules
in tumor metastasis, but no correlation was noted in the expression or distribution of various cellular adhesion molecules
by the different histologic subtypes of basal cell carcinoma.
For example, cytokines stimulate collagen synthesis in smooth muscle cells and promote endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell activation through the induction of cellular adhesion molecules.
Because cellular adhesion molecules such as VCAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin and many cytokines and growth factors such as M-CSF contain functional DNA-binding sequences for NF-[kappa]B, AP-1, and egr-1, their expression is induced by the activation of these transcription factors (84).
Thus, antioxidants may protect against the development of atherosclerotis by inhibiting the activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors that are required for the induction of cellular adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factors in the vessel wall.
Endothelium-derived NO inhibits the expression of cellular adhesion molecules on the endothelial surface and thereby prevents leukocyte attachment to the vessel wall (31,103).