cell structure

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cell structure

see CELL.

cell structure

common intracellular features (nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane) and organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, mitochondria, microtubules, Golgi apparatus) which facilitate specialist function (see Table 1)
Table 1: Cell organelles
StructureCharacteristic
Cell membraneBimolecular lipid and protein membrane that surrounds the cell
• Bi-layer of non-polar lipid molecules (phosphatidylcholine, phospharidylethanolamine, cholesterol) that acts as a barrier to water and hydrophilic solutes
• Proteins:
  • Structural proteins

  • Protein pumps that actively transport ions such as sodium out of the cell

  • Carrier proteins that carry molecules such as glucose into the cell

  • Ion channel proteins, such as sodium ion channels in nerve fibres to which molecules of local anaesthetic attach to prevent the passage of the pain-inducing nerve impulse

  • Receptor proteins, such as insulin receptors which facilitate the passage of glucose into the cell

  • Immunoglobulin proteins, which form part of the immune response mechanism

  • Enzyme proteins, such as alkaline phosphatase

Cell cytoplasmThe gel-like matter contained within the membrane envelop:
• Contains and supports specialized organelles, including the cell nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and lysozomes
• Stores substances (glycogen and lipids)
• Synthesizes and metabolizes essential substances (amino acids, fatty acids, monosaccharides)
• Synthesizes and translates protein
• Contains microtubules which help maintain the form of the cell and form intercommunication channels between organelles
Cell cytoskeletonA complex network of structural elements (microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments) which determine the shape of the cell, its ability to move and its response to external stimuli
Cell nucleusPresent in all eukaryotic cells capable of mitosis
Contains the cell genome (DNA) and the means of replication and transcription of RNA
Separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelop (which disappears during mitosis and meiosis)
Contains the nucleolus, where ribosomes are synthesized
Intercellular connectionsThere are two types of intercellular connections: tight junctions and gap junctions
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)Structures (receptor integrins, immunoglobulin adhesion molecules, Ca+-dependent cadherins and carbohydrate-binding selectins) within the cell membrane that bond to laminins within the extracellular matrix to attach adjacent cells to one another and to the basal membrane
References in periodicals archive ?
To achieve a mechanistic understanding of how cell organization is regulated, we will develop methods to manipulate cytoskeletal interactions in space and time and study the effects of such manipulation on functional cytoskeletal organization in the confinement of both artificial systems and cells.
His group at Carnegie Mellon has pioneered a number of machine learning methods for analyzing and modeling various aspects of cell organization.
StemGenex is the only stem cell organization that actively tracks their patient satisfaction ratings, proudly displaying them on their website.
A production of these bisindole alkaloids is related to the cell organization found in the leaves[10].
Mass Support--Medium in Highmount, due to perceived ineffectiveness or complicity of Memphis Police Recent Activities 9 April--Report by Marlboro Man of Michael Fletcher in Highmount 9 April--Report by Lucy of Blair Tighe's association with Michael Fletcher 7 April--Found SC poster on Oak St 6 April--IED vs 1-17 IN on Oak St 3 April--Report by Marlboro Man detailing cell organization Objectives 1.
First, construct a 10x10 cell organization structure with 100 members whose original states are 0.
Address correspondence to this author at: Fundacion Valenciana de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Laboratory of Cell Organization, Amadeo de Saboya, 4, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
Cells treated with IGF-1, mechanical stretch, or a combination of both were tested through parameters of cell organization, cytoskeletal organization, collagen expression, collagenase expression, cell proliferation, and signal transduction using Pierce Assays, Western Blots, and confocal microscopy.
Another, from Linda Thomas, Executive Director for the Austin Sickle Cell Association, discusses her husband's battle with Sickle Cell disease and the very personal reasons they started the local sickle cell organization.