cefaclor

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cefaclor

 [sef´ah-klor]
a semisynthetic broad-spectrum second-generation cephalosporinantibiotic administered orally in treatment of otitis media and infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin and soft tissues.

cefaclor

Apo-Cefaclor (CA), Distaclor (UK), PMS-Cefaclor (CA), Raniclor

Pharmacologic class: Second-generation cephalosporin

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Interferes with bacterial cell-wall synthesis, causing cell to rupture and die

Availability

Capsules: 250 mg, 500 mg

Oral suspension: 125 mg/5 ml, 187 mg/5 ml, 250 mg/5 ml, 375 mg/5 ml

Tablets (extended-release): 500 mg

Indications and dosages

Uncomplicated skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus

Adults and children ages 16 and older: 375 mg P.O. (extended-release tablet) q 12 hours for 7 to 10 days

Pharyngitis and tonsillitis not caused by Haemophilus influenzae

Adults and children ages 16 and older: 375 mg P.O. (extended-release tablet) q 12 hours for 10 days

Chronic bronchitis and acute bronchitis not caused by H. influenzae

Adults and children ages 16 and older: 500 mg P.O. (extended-release tablet) q 12 hours for 7 days

Otitis media caused by staphylococci; lower respiratory tract infections caused by H. influenzae, S. pyogenes, and S. pneumoniae; pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes; urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and coagulase-negative staphylococci

Adults and children ages 13 to 17: 250 mg P.O. q 8 hours. For severe infections, 500 mg P.O. q 8 hours.

Children: 20 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses q 8 hours. For serious infections, 40 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses q 8 hours. Maximum dosage is 1 g/day.

Dosage adjustment

• Renal insufficiency
• Elderly patients

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins or penicillins

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• renal impairment, phenylketonuria
• history of GI disease (especially colitis)
• emaciated patients
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children.

Administration

• Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity testing as necessary before starting therapy.
• Be aware that cross-sensitivity to penicillins may occur.
• Give extended-release tablets with food to enhance absorption.
• Don't give antacids within 2 hours of extended-release form.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, lethargy, paresthesia, syncope, seizures

CV: hypotension, palpitations, chest pain, vasodilation

EENT: hearing loss

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, oral candidiasis, pseudomembranous colitis

GU: vaginal candidiasis, nephrotoxicity

Hematologic: lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, bleeding tendency, hemolytic anemia, hypoprothrombinemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, bone marrow depression

Hepatic: hepatic failure, hepatomegaly

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: urticaria, maculopapular or erythematous rash

Other: chills, fever, superinfection, anaphylaxis, serum sickness

Interactions

Drug-drug.Aminoglycosides, loop diuretics: increased risk of nephrotoxicity

Antacids: decreased absorption of extended-release cefaclor tablets

Chloramphenicol: antagonistic effect

Probenecid: decreased excretion and increased blood level of cefaclor

Drug-diagnostic tests.Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, eosinophils, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels
Coombs' test, urinary 17-ketosteroids, nonenzyme-based urine glucose tests (such as Clinitest): false-positive results

Hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased values

Patient monitoring

• Assess CBC and kidney and liver function test results.
• With long-term therapy, obtain monthly Coombs' test.
• Monitor for signs and symptoms of superinfection and other serious adverse reactions.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take drug with food or milk to reduce GI upset.
• Advise patient to complete entire course of therapy even if he feels better.
• Tell patient to report signs and symptoms of allergic response and other adverse reactions, such as rash, easy bruising, bleeding, severe GI problems, or difficulty breathing.
• Instruct patient to avoid taking antacids within 2 hours of extended-release cefaclor.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

cefaclor

/cef·a·clor/ (sef´ah-klor) a semisynthetic, second-generation cephalosporin effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

cefaclor

(sĕf′ə-klôr′)
n.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, C15H14ClN3O4S, that is given orally.

cefaclor

[sē′fəklôr]
a cephalosporin antibiotic.
indications It is prescribed in the treatment of selected infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria.
contraindications Known hypersensitivity to cephalosporins prohibits its use. It is used with caution in patients who are allergic to penicillin.
adverse effects Among the most serious adverse reactions are hypersensitivity reactions and diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

cefaclor

A broad-spectrum antibiotic. One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that can be taken by mouth. Brand names are Distaclor and Keftid.

cefaclor (sef´əklor),

n brand names: Ceclor, Ceclor CD;
drug class: second-generation cephalosporin;
action: inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis;
uses: eradication of gram-negative bacilli from the upper and lower respiratory tract and treatment of urinary tracts and skin infections and otitis media.

cefaclor

a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic, administered orally. Not widely used in veterinary medicine.