catecholamines


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cat·e·chol·a·mines

(kat'ĕ-kol'ă-mēnz),
Pyrocatechols with an alkylamine side chain; examples of biochemical interest are epinephrine, norepinephrine, and l-dopa. Catecholamines are major elements in responses to stress.

cat·e·chol·a·mines

(kat'ĕ-kol'ă-mēnz)
Pyrocatechols with an alkylamine side chain; examples of biochemical interest are epinephrine, norepinephrine, and l-dopa. Catecholamines are major elements in responses to stress.

catecholamines

The group of AMINES, which includes adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and chemically related amines. These are derived from the amino acid tyrosine, and act as neurotransmitters or hormones.

Catecholamines

Family of neurotransmitters containing dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, produced and secreted by cells of the adrenal medulla in the brain. Catecholamines have excitatory effects on smooth muscle cells of the vessels that supply blood to the skin and mucous membranes and have inhibitory effects on smooth muscle cells located in the wall of the gut, the bronchial tree of the lungs, and the vessels that supply blood to skeletal muscle. There are two different main types of receptors for these neurotransmitters, called alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. The catecholamines are therefore are also known as adrenergic neurotransmitters.

catecholamines

substances that mediate the effects of activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Released into the blood as hormones from the adrenal medulla, and act as neurotransmitters at sympathetic nerve endings and within the central nervous system. The main ones are adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine. See also adrenoceptors, hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

catecholamines

adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

catecholamines (kaˈ·t·kōˑ·l·mēnz),

n.pl a group of substances derived from tyrosine that act as hormones to stimulate cellular activity and carry nerve impulses through the body.
References in periodicals archive ?
Note that in the present case, the tumor was detected incidentally on imaging in the ER before catecholamines were measured--the reverse of the usual practice--adrenal "incidentalomas" are common while pheochromocytomas are rare.
Stress cardiomyopathy after intravenous administration of catecholamines and beta-receptor agonists.
After a preoperative medical consult and adequate preoperative catecholamine blockade, the patient underwent bilateral open adrenal-ectomies with a chevron incision.
Such procedures can cause a surged release of catecholamines into the systemic circulation, which can lead to features of a catecholamine crisis-headache, sweating, elevated blood pressure, lesion haemorrhage, haemodynamic compromise, and limb and cardiac ischaemia.
Though much less established than salivary cortisol levels, measurement of catecholamines, including dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine as well as other neurotransmitters in urine, is emerging as an effective way to assess the neuronal component of the stress response.
The presence of a thick wall may reduce the passage of catecholamine metabolites into the plasma and urine, making an early diagnosis difficult if only biochemical investigations are performed.
The results of the performed analysis showed that the groups that have used Ritalin stimulant drugs, had a higher concentrations of catecholamines and lactic acid in the blood compared to the control group.
In contrast to TNFa, which causes chronic lipolysis, catecholamines are a class of physiological hormones that stimulate acute lipolysis.
carotid body tumours and rarely secrete catecholamines.
15) The many reasons for non-diagnosis include the nonspecific nature of the symptoms, the clinicians' low index of suspicion, and that some tumours are asymptomatic because they are non-functioning or secrete relatively small amounts of catecholamines.
The objectives of our study are i) to assess the use of urinary catecholamines to monitor changes in the activity of SNS, and ii) to investigate the relationship of urinary cortisol with urinary catecholamines, in cattle in response to social isolation.
urine) Reference Assay Result Interval Urine free cortisol (nmol/L) 9432 100--380 Urine catecholamines I II III Adrenalin * (nmol/mmol creatinine) 0.