cardiac arrest

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arrest

 [ah-rest´]
sudden cessation or stoppage.
cardiac arrest see cardiac arrest.
epiphyseal arrest premature arrest of the longitudinal growth of bone due to fusion of the epiphysis and diaphysis.
maturation arrest interruption of the process of development, as of blood cells, before the final stage is reached.

cardiac

 [kahr´de-ak]
1. pertaining to the heart.
2. pertaining to the ostium cardiacum.
cardiac arrest sudden and often unexpected stoppage of effective heart action. Either the periodic impulses that trigger the coordinated heart muscle contractions cease or ventricular fibrillation or flutter occurs in which the individual muscle fibers have a rapid irregular twitching. The majority of victims of cardiac arrest suffer from ventricular fibrillation, and most have severe coronary artery disease. The only chance for survival for many who have unexpected cardiac arrest is successful implementation of emergency cardiac care and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Reduction of the incidence of cardiac arrest and sudden death is a major concern of the American Heart Association and the American Red Cross.

Programs aimed at achieving the goal of reduced mortality from cardiac arrest include education of the general public in ways to avoid the development of coronary artery disease in the first place, and secondarily, training lay people and health care professionals and paraprofessionals in the techniques of CPR and emergency cardiac care.

Although cardiac arrest usually is related to preexisting coronary artery disease, there are other events in which the prompt delivery of CPR alone could mean survival for the victim. These include the cessation of heart and lung action as a result of drowning, suffocation, electrocution, drug overdose, and severe accidental trauma.
cardiac catheterization the insertion of a catheter into a vein or artery and guiding of it into the interior of the heart for purposes of measuring cardiac output, determining the oxygen content of blood in the heart chambers, and evaluating the structural components of the heart. It is indicated whenever it is necessary to establish a precise and definite diagnosis in order to determine whether heart surgery is necessary and to plan the surgical approach.
A, Right-sided heart catheterization. The catheter is inserted into the femoral vein and advanced through the inferior vena cava (or, if into an antecubital or basilic vein, through the superior vena cava), right atrium, and right ventricle and into the pulmonary artery. B, Left-sided heart catheterization. The catheter is inserted into the femoral artery or the antecubital artery. The catheter is passed through the ascending aorta, through the aortic valve, and into the left ventricle. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2002.
Patient Care. Patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization experience a high level of stress. They are fearful and anxious because the procedure involves the heart, has a potential for some rather serious complications, and could indicate a need for cardiac surgery. Prior to the catheterization the patient will need to know that it is not a surgical procedure, even though a consent form must be signed, food and fluids are restricted, and a surgical preparation of the catheter insertion site is done. The patient should be told of these and other preparations as well as the physical features of the laboratory in which the catheterization is to be done.

During the initial assessment it is important to find out whether the patient has any allergies. The contrast medium used contains iodide salts; if a patient is allergic to iodine or seafood, a contrast medium that does not contain iodine must be used, or antihistamines must be administered before the procedure. A mild tranquilizer or hypnotic may be given just before the procedure to help the patient relax, but a general anesthetic is not used. Patients need to know that they must be awake and cooperative during the procedure. They will be asked to stay in a certain position, cough, breathe deeply, and possibly exercise so that the heart's response to an increased workload can be evaluated. They should be reassured that the laboratory staff is ready and equipped to handle any emergency should the need arise.

Ideally, preprocedure visits by the physician and a member of the staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory will provide patients with the information they need about the procedure, its purpose, and potential complications. However, because of anxiety the patient may not be able to assimilate the information and will have many questions not asked at the time of the visits. It is then the responsibility of the floor nurses to answer questions as honestly as they can and to provide emotional support and reassurance.

After the procedure the vital signs are checked periodically. It is especially important to check the pulses distal to the insertion site every half-hour for three hours, or as often as required by protocol, to be sure there has been no clotting and obstruction of a blood vessel. The insertion site dressing is changed as needed and the site inspected for signs of infection. Thirst and diuresis are expected because of the effect of the dye used in the procedure. The patient should be encouraged to drink fluids to prevent hypotension and hasten excretion of the dye, which is potentially nephrotoxic. Mild discomfort also is expected and should respond to the prescribed analgesic. If the patient experiences severe pain the physician should be notified.

car·di·ac ar·rest (CA),

complete cessation of cardiac activity either electric, mechanical, or both; may be purposely induced for therapeutic reasons.
Synonym(s): heart arrest

cardiac arrest

n.
1. Sudden cessation of heartbeat and cardiac function, resulting in the loss of effective circulation.
2. An instance of this: personnel who deal with cardiac arrests at sports events.

cardiac arrest

Etymology: Gk, kardia + L, ad + restare, to withstand
a sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation. It is usually precipitated by ventricular fibrillation or ventricular asystole. When cardiac arrest occurs, delivery of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide stop, tissue cell metabolism becomes anaerobic, and metabolic and respiratory acidosis ensue. Immediate initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required to prevent heart, lung, kidney, and brain damage and death. Also called cardiopulmonary arrest. See also cardiac standstill, cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

cardiac arrest

Asystole Cardiac pacing Complete cessation of the heart's normal and rhythmic electrical and/or mechanical activity

car·di·ac ar·rest

(CA) (kahr'dē-ak ă-rest')
Complete cessation of cardiac activity either electric, mechanical, or both; may be purposely induced for therapeutic reasons.

cardiac arrest

Complete cessation of the normal heart contractions so that the pumping of the blood stops. In about 30 percent of cases the heart muscle is motionless (asystolic); in the remainder it is in a state of quivering, ineffectual fluttering (ventricular fibrillation). Asystolic cardiac arrest is treated by intravenous injection of VASOPRESSIN alone or followed by ADRENALINE; ventricular fibrillation is treated by electrical defibrillation.

Cardiac arrest

A condition in which the heart stops functioning. Fibrillation can lead to cardiac arrest if not corrected quickly.

cardiac arrest

cessation of the heart beat. See also cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), sudden death.

cardiac arrest

cessation of heart function and circulatory collapse; characterized by unconsciousness, pulselessness, rapid fall of blood pressure and oxygen saturation levels; death is imminent unless effective life support is instigated (see basic life support)

cardiac arrest,

n condition characterized by the sudden, complete cessation of all cardiac functioning.

car·di·ac ar·rest

(CA) (kahr'dē-ak ă-rest')
Complete cessation of cardiac activity.

arrest

sudden cessation or stoppage.

cardiac arrest
sudden and often unexpected stoppage of effective heart action. Either the periodic impulses which trigger the coordinated heart muscle contractions cease or ventricular fibrillation or flutter occurs in which the individual muscle fibers have a rapid irregular twitching.
epiphyseal arrest
premature arrest of the longitudinal growth of bone due to fusion of the epiphysis and diaphysis.
maturation arrest
interruption of the process of development, as of blood cells, before the final stage is reached.
sinoatrial arrest
a disturbance in cardiac conduction in which the sinoatrial node intermittently fails to generate an impulse. There are no P waves or PQRS-T complexes for at least twice the normal R-R interval. If the pauses are long enough, junctional or ventricular escape complexes may occur. Occurs most commonly in brachycephalic dogs, causing only minor clinical signs.

Patient discussion about cardiac arrest

Q. WHAT IS CARDIAC ARREST why do people have IT?

A. cardiac arrest is when the heart stops pumping blood. stops working. it can happen in a few cases:
1) it doesn't get oxygen and there for a part of it dies and make the whole heart stopping- heart attack.
2) in electric shock it may cause the electric pulse that generate movement in the heart to stop.
3)from harsh septic shock.
4) from any shock actually :).


More discussions about cardiac arrest
References in periodicals archive ?
In our hospital, the major barrier to initiating review of unwell ward patients appeared to be reluctance to use the traditional Code Blue team to review patients fulfilling MET criteria who had not suffered a cardiorespiratory arrest.
To the Editor: I read with interest the report of Stevens et al (1) in which they described a 16-year-old girl who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest at school and died after a failed attempt at resuscitation.
May 14, Sinatra suffered cardiorespiratory arrest - his heart and lungs stopped functioning - while in the hospital emergency room, the county Department of Health Services document showed.
But, intensive care expert Professor Jerry Nolan said he thought it was likely that Christopher was in cardiorespiratory arrest - with no heartbeat and no breathing - when he was assessed on the pitch by Dr Bull.
According to the NMC Hospital report the baby suffered three episodes of cardiorespiratory arrest.
In one report, two patients who had survived cardiorespiratory arrest occurring in association with amniotic fluid embolism syndrome both had uneventful subsequent pregnancies and delivered at term without complications (Am.
We describe a 16-year-old girl who had sudden onset of cardiorespiratory arrest while at school.
The cause of death listed on her Ventura County death certificate was ``anoxic encephalopathy, cardiorespiratory arrest, possible Demerol reaction.
He said: "I think at that point it is almost certain he is in cardiorespiratory arrest.
Berger died in Maria Fe's home July 16 of cardiorespiratory arrest and other complications of his cancer.
Complications caused by fluid overload are sometimes understated, particularly when deaths caused by hyponatremia or pulmonary edema are classified as cardiorespiratory arrest rather than excessive fluid administration.
Adverse events resulting in death reported in the postmarketing setting with Lumizyme treatment included cardiorespiratory arrest, respiratory failure, hemothorax, pneumothorax, cardiac failure, sepsis, aortic dissection, cerebrovascular accident, and skin necrosis.