heart murmur

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Related to Cardiac murmurs: heart murmur

heart sounds

 
the sounds heard on the surface of the chest in the heart region; they are amplified by and heard more distinctly through a stethoscope. They are caused by the vibrations generated during the normal cardiac cycle and may be produced by muscular action, valvular actions, motion of the heart, or blood passing through the heart.

The first heart sound (S1) is heard as a firm but dull “lubb” sound. It consists of four components: a low-frequency, indistinct vibration caused by ventricular contraction; a louder sound of higher frequency caused by closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves; a vibration caused by opening of the semilunar valves and early ejection of blood from the ventricles; and a low-pitched vibration produced by rapid ejection.

The second heart sound (S2) is shorter and higher pitched than the first, is heard as a “dupp” and is produced by closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves.

The third heart sound (S3) is very faint and is caused by blood rushing into the ventricles. It can be heard in most normal persons between the ages of 10 and 20 years.

The fourth heart sound (S4) is rarely audible in a normal heart but can be demonstrated on graphic records. It is short and of low frequency and intensity, and is caused by atrial contraction. The vibrations arise from atrial muscle and from blood flow into, and distention of, the ventricles.
Abnormalities in Heart Sounds. Decreased compliance of a ventricle is characterized by a gallop or triple rhythm. Accentuation of the third heart sound (protodiastolic or ventricular gallop) is caused by the filling of a poorly compliant ventricle with blood under high venous pressure. A presystolic or atrial gallop is an accentuated fourth heart sound and is also caused by blood filling a poorly compliant ventricle. Merging of the third and fourth heart sounds is called a mesodiastolic or summation gallop. A very rare abnormality in which four heart sounds are heard distinctly is called a “locomotive” rhythm.

Heart Murmurs are sounds other than the normal heart sounds emanating from the heart region. They are often heard as blowing or hissing sounds as blood leaks back through diseased and malfunctioning valves or as blood is pushed through narrowed or stenotic valve orifices.
Precordial locations for cardiac palpation and auscultation of heart sounds. Closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves produces the S1 heart sound; closure of the pulmonic and aortic (semilunar) valves produces the S2 sound. From Polaski and Tatro, 1996.

murmur

 [mer´mer]
an auscultatory sound, benign or pathologic, loud or soft, particularly a periodic sound of short duration of cardiac or vascular origin.
aortic murmur a sound indicative of disease of the aortic valve.
apex murmur (apical murmur) a heart murmur heard over the apex of the heart.
arterial murmur one in an artery, sometimes aneurysmal and sometimes constricted.
Austin Flint murmur a loud presystolic murmur at the apex heard when aortic regurgitation is preventing the mitral valve from closing; called also Flint's murmur.
blood murmur one due to an abnormal, commonly anemic, condition of the blood. Called also hemic murmur.
cardiac murmur heart murmur.
cardiopulmonary murmur one produced by the impact of the heart against the lung.
continuous murmur a humming heart murmur heard throughout systole and diastole.
crescendo murmur one marked by progressively increasing loudness that suddenly ceases.
Cruveilhier-Baumgarten murmur one heard at the abdominal wall over veins connecting the portal and caval systems.
diastolic murmur a heart murmur heard at diastole, due to mitral obstruction or to aortic or pulmonic regurgitation with forward flow across the atrioventricular valve; it has a rumbling quality.
Duroziez's murmur a double murmur during systole and diastole, palpated over the femoral or another large peripheral artery; due to aortic insufficiency.
ejection murmur a systolic murmur heard predominantly in midsystole, when ejection volume and velocity of blood flow are at their maximum; it is produced by ejection of blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta.
Flint's murmur Austin Flint murmur.
friction murmur friction rub.
functional murmur a heart murmur occurring in the absence of structural changes in the heart, usually due to high cardiac output states. Called also innocent murmur and physiologic murmur.
Gibson murmur a long rumbling sound occupying most of systole and diastole, usually localized in the second left interspace near the sternum, and usually indicative of patent ductus arteriosus. Called also machinery murmur.
Graham Steell murmur a high-pitched diastolic murmur due to pulmonic regurgitation in patients with pulmonary hypertension and mitral stenosis.
heart murmur see heart murmur.
hemic murmur blood murmur.
innocent murmur functional murmur.
machinery murmur Gibson murmur.
mitral murmur a heart murmur due to disease of the mitral valve; it can be either obstructive or regurgitant.
musical murmur one that has a periodic harmonic pattern; it may be either a heart murmur or a vascular murmur.
organic murmur one due to a lesion in the organ or organ system being examined, e.g., in the heart, in a blood vessel, or in lung tissue.
pansystolic murmur a regurgitant murmur heard throughout systole, due to blood flow between two chambers normally of very different pressures in systole; the most common causes are mitral regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation, and ventricular septal defects.
physiologic murmur functional murmur.
prediastolic murmur one occurring just before and with diastole, due to aortic regurgitation or pulmonic regurgitation.
presystolic murmur one shortly before the onset of ventricular ejection, usually associated with a narrowed atrioventricular valve.
pulmonic murmur one due to disease of the pulmonary valve or artery.
regurgitant murmur a heart murmur due to a dilated valvular orifice with consequent valvular regurgitation.
seagull murmur a raucous murmur resembling the call of a seagull, frequently heard in aortic stenosis or mitral regurgitation.
Still's murmur a functional heart murmur of childhood, with a buzzing or vibratory tone heard in midsystole; it usually disappears by puberty.
systolic murmur a heart murmur heard at systole, usually due to mitral or tricuspid regurgitation or to aortic or pulmonary obstruction.
to-and-fro murmur a friction sound or murmur heard with both systole and diastole.
tricuspid murmur a heart murmur caused by disease of the tricuspid valve; it may be either obstructive or regurgitant.
vascular murmur one heard over a blood vessel.
vesicular murmur vesicular breath sounds.

heart murmur

An auscultatory sound of cardiac or vascular origin, usually caused by an abnormal flow of blood in the heart due to structural defects of the valves or septum; murmurs may be benign or pathological

heart murmur

  See Murmur.

heart mur·mur

(hahrt mŭr'mŭr)
A colloquialism for cardiac murmur (q.v.).

heart murmur

A sound caused by turbulent blood flow or vibration of a heart valve that may or may not indicate abnormality. Many heart murmurs are innocent.

Heart murmur

Sound during the heartbeat caused by a heart valve that does not close properly.
Mentioned in: Mitral Valve Prolapse

heart murmur

a sound additional to the normal heart sounds, heard on auscultation of the heart. Many murmurs are of no significance (innocent, physiological murmurs), particularly in young children, or due to increased blood flow through the heart during exercise, or in pregnancy. pathological murmurs may be due to abnormalities in the heart's structure or turbulent flow through a heart valve abnormality (congenital or acquired: in adults most commonly following rheumatic fever). Symptoms may include breathlessness, palpitations, chest pain or fainting but many murmurs are asymptomatic and are identified, for example, during routine medical examination. All sports participants found to have a murmur should undergo full cardiovascular assessment, including echocardiography, to exclude any cause which might increase the risk of sudden death during exercise. Management is of the underlying cause and surgery may be indicated in certain conditions, especially for significantly narrowed heart valves. See also heart sounds, medical screening.

heart mur·mur

(hahrt mŭr'mŭr)
A colloquialism for cardiac murmur (q.v.).

murmur

an auscultatory sound, particularly a periodic sound of short duration of cardiac or vascular origin.

anemic murmur
see blood murmur (below).
aortic murmur
a sound indicative of disease of the aortic valve.
apex murmur
one heard over the apex of the heart.
arterial murmur
one in an artery, sometimes aneurysmal and sometimes constricted.
blood murmur
one due to an abnormal, commonly anemic, condition of the blood. Called also anemic murmur.
cardiac murmur
see heart murmur (below).
cardiopulmonary murmur
one produced by the impact of the heart against the lung.
continuous murmur
a humming murmur heard throughout systole and diastole.
crescendo murmur
one marked by progressively increasing loudness.
crescendo-decrescendo murmur
one with increasing intensity until mid- to late systole, then a decreasing intensity, giving a diamond-shaped tracing on phonocardiography. Characteristic of pulmonary stenosis.
decrescendo murmur
one with an intensity that gradually decreases. Heard during diastole in aortic or pulmonary valvular insufficiency.
diamond-shaped murmur
refers to the phonocardiographic tracing of a crescendo-decrescendo murmur.
diastolic murmur
one at diastole, due to mitral obstruction or to aortic or pulmonary regurgitation.
ejection murmur
systolic murmur heard predominantly in mid-systole, when ejection volume and velocity of blood flow are at their maximum.
friction murmur
friction rub.
functional murmur
a cardiac murmur occurring in the absence of structural changes in the heart.
heart murmur
any adventitious sound heard over the region of the heart. It may indicate a leaking or stenotic valve, a congenital patency between the right and left sides of the heart, or be a functional murmur which does not indicate cardiac disease. These occur in young foals, some of them disappear before maturity.
hemic murmur
see blood murmur (above).
innocent murmur
one caused by increased velocity of blood rather than a cardiac lesion.
machinery murmur, machinery-like murmur
a long, rumbling sound occupying most of systole and diastole. Characteristic of patent ductus arteriosus and arteriovenous fistulas.
mitral murmur
one due to disease of the mitral valve.
musical murmur
a cardiac murmur having a periodic harmonic pattern.
organic murmur
one due to structural change in the heart.
pansystolic murmur
one heard throughout systole.
prediastolic murmur
one occurring just before and with diastole, due to mitral obstruction or to aortic or pulmonary regurgitation.
presystolic murmur
one occurring shortly before the onset of ventricular ejection, usually associated with a narrowed atrioventricular valve.
pulmonary murmur
one due to disease of the valves of the pulmonary artery.
radiating heart murmur
one which is heard over a wider area or over another area. The systolic murmur of subaortic stenosis radiates up the aortic arch and carotid arteries. It can be heard over the right, as well as left, heart base and occasionally over the head.
regurgitant murmur
one due to a dilated valvular orifice, with consequent regurgitation of blood through the valve.
seagull murmur
a raucous murmur resembling the call of a seagull, frequently heard in aortic insufficiency.
systolic murmur
one occurring at systole, usually due to mitral or tricuspid regurgitation, or to aortic or pulmonary obstruction.
tricuspid murmur
one caused by disease of the tricuspid valve.
vascular murmur
one heard over a blood vessel.
vesicular murmur
the normal breath sounds heard over the lungs.

Patient discussion about heart murmur

Q. What is a Heart Murmur? My friend told me that some people have a heart murmor and it is normal. Is that possible? What is a heart murmur?

A. A heart murmur is a sound that is created by inadequate blood flow through the heart and its large vessels, for example the aorta. Some are born with a heart murmur and further testing doesn't reveal any significant problem. This is called a physiological murmur.
http://www.5min.com/Video/What-is-Innocent-Heart-Murmur-5501

Q. How are Heart Murmurs Classified? What are the characteristics of different heart murmurs?

A. Heart murmurs are charachterized by their location, their strength, their timing, whether or not they radiate and so on. For example, this is a sound of a heart murmur compatible with a disease called aortic stenosis-
http://www.dundee.ac.uk/medther/Cardiology/audio/as.wav
Notice that the murmur begin with the heart sound and lasts all through the beat.

More discussions about heart murmur
References in periodicals archive ?
Values show the percentage and absolute number of patients with this comorbidity requiring outpatient clinic assessment Patients requiring OPD assessment Diminished exercise tolerance * 100% (24) Cardiac implants 100% (8) Gastric banding 100% (9) Angina 87% (15) Previous regional block complication 83% (6) COAD 76% (25) Hepatitis 75% (12) OSA 72% (49) Orthopnoea 71% (17) DVT 70% (20) Cardiac murmur 70% (10) OPD=outpatient department, COAD=chronic obstructive airway disease, OSA=obstructive sleep apnoea, DVT=deep vein thrombosis.
This is the correct approach in the light of the evaluation of the cardiac murmurs.