isolated from Antiaris toxicaria latex-derived dart poison.
are a secondary chemical that milkweeds use as a defense compound; many plant and animal species use cardenolides
in this manner, in particular, monarch butterfly larva sequester them from feeding on milkweed.
Molecules with similar structures include cardenolides
, such as digoxin and digitoxin, which are known substrates of ABC transporters (de Lan noy and Silverman 1992; Cavet et al.
Monarch butterflies and caterpillars are famous for the cardenolides
they sequester from milkweed plants that elicit vomiting in birds.
Dietary influence of cardenolides
on larval growth and development of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.
Perez-Amador M, Bratoeff EA and SB Hernandez Thevetoxide and Digitoxigenin, cardenolides
from two species of Thevetia (Apocynaceae).
The plant material was screened for the presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Cardenolides
, Anthraquinones, and Saponins.
Phytochemical screening: Preliminary phytochemical screening of the powdered root was performed for the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides
, flavonoids and saponins (11).
The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, cardenolides
Various groups have confirmed the existence of these mammalian cardenolides
(7-9), and although their physiological roles and pharmacologic actions are not fully understood, these compounds and the plant-derived compounds have similar structures, including a steroid backbone to which a lactone ring and sugars are attached (8-10).
In particular, their production of heart poisons called cardenolides
Phytochemical analyses reveal that the latex of the Antiaris toxicaria includes a differing blend (individually and provincially) of at least 30 complex cardenolides