carboplatin

(redirected from Carboplatinum)
Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

carboplatin

 [kahr″bo-plat´in]
a platinum coordination compound that interferes with functioning of cellular DNA; used as an antineoplastic agent to treat cancers of the ovary, lung, head and neck, testes, bladder, brain, and other organs.

carboplatin

Pharmacologic class: Alkylating agent

Therapeutic class: Antineoplastic

Pregnancy risk category D

FDA Box Warning

• Give under supervision of physician experienced in cancer chemotherapy, in facility with adequate diagnostic and treatment resources.

• Bone marrow suppression is dose-related and may be severe, resulting in infection and bleeding. Anemia may be cumulative and warrant transfusions.

• Vomiting is a common adverse effect.

• Anaphylactic-like reactions may occur within minutes of administration.

Action

Inhibits DNA synthesis by causing cross-linking of parent DNA strands; interferes with RNA transcription, causing growth imbalance that leads to cell death. Cell-cycle-phase nonspecific.

Availability

Injection: 50-mg, 150-mg, and 450-mg vials

Indications and dosages

Initial treatment of advanced ovarian cancer or palliative treatment of ovarian cancer unresponsive to other chemotherapeutic modalities

Adults: Initially, 300 mg/m2 I.V. (given with cyclophosphamide) at 4-week intervals. For refractory tumors, 360 mg/m2 I.V. as a single dose; may be repeated at 4-week intervals, depending on response. However, single dose shouldn't be repeated until neutrophil count is at least 2,000/mm3 and platelet count at least 100,000/mm3. Subsequent dosages are based on blood counts.

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment
• Reduced bone marrow reserve

Off-label uses

• Advanced endometrial cancer
• Advanced or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck
• Relapsed and refractory acute leukemia
• Small-cell lung cancer
• Testicular cancer

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug, cisplatin, or mannitol
• Pregnancy or breastfeeding

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• hearing loss, electrolyte imbalances, renal impairment, active infections, diminished bone marrow reserve
• females of childbearing age.

Administration

• Premedicate with antiemetics, as prescribed.
• When preparing and administering drug, follow facility protocol for handling cytotoxic drugs.
• Reconstitute powder for injection by adding sterile water for injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, or 5% dextrose injection, as appropriate, to provide 10-mg/ml solution. Drug may be further diluted to concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/ml.
• Don't use with needles or I.V. sets containing aluminum.
• Administer I.V. infusion over at least 15 minutes.
• Make sure patient maintains adequate fluid intake.
• Know that drug is given in combination with other agents.

Adverse reactions

CNS: weakness, dizziness, confusion, peripheral neuropathy, cerebrovascular accident

CV: heart failure, embolism

EENT: visual disturbances, ototoxicity

GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, stomatitis

GU: gonadal suppression, nephrotoxicity

Hematologic: anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia Hepatic: hepatitis

Metabolic: hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia

Respiratory: bronchospasm

Skin: alopecia, rash, urticaria, erythema, pruritus

Other: altered taste, hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug.Live-virus vaccines: decreased antibody response to vaccine, increased risk of adverse reactions

Myelosuppressants: additive bone marrow depression

Nephrotoxic or ototoxic drugs (such as aminoglycosides, loop diuretics): additive nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity

Phenytoin: decreased phenytoin blood level

Drug-diagnostic tests.Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine: increased values

Electrolytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin. neutrophils, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells: decreased values

Patient monitoring

• Assess for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions.
• Monitor CBC to help detect drug-induced anemia and other hematologic reactions.
• Monitor ALP, AST, and total bilirubin levels.
• Evaluate fluid and electrolyte balance.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to report signs and symptoms of allergic response and other adverse reactions, such as breathing problems, mouth sores, rash, itching, and reddened skin.
• Advise patient to report unusual bleeding or bruising.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.
• Urge patient to avoid activities that can cause injury. Advise him to use soft toothbrush and electric razor to avoid gum and skin injury.
• Instruct patient to drink plenty of fluids to ensure adequate urinary output.
• Provide dietary counseling and refer patient to dietitian as needed if GI adverse effects significantly limit food intake.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

car·bo·plat·in

(kar'bō-pla-tin),
A platinum-containing anticancer agent much like cisplatin but more toxic to the myeloid elements of bone marrow while producing less nausea and neuro-, oto-, and nephrotoxicity; used in the chemotherapy of solid tumors.

carboplatin

/car·bo·pla·tin/ (kahr´bo-plat″in) an antineoplastic used in the treatment of carcinomas of the ovary and numerous other organs.

carboplatin

(kär′bō-plăt′n)
n.
A platinum-containing chemotherapeutic drug used primarily in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

carboplatin

[kär′bōplat′in]
one of a series of platinum analog drugs used in cancer therapy. It is commonly administered intravenously for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

carboplatin

A chemotherapeutic agent used to manage advanced ovarian, lung, head and neck and other cancers; it interacts with DNA in a manner similar to that of alkylating agents.

Adverse effects
Myelosuppression, nausea, vomiting diarrhoea, hair loss, pain, neurologic complaints.

carboplatin

Oncology A chemotherapeutic for advanced ovarian and other CAs Adverse effects Cytopenias, nausea, diarrhea, hair loss, pain, neurologic complaints

car·bo·plat·in

(kahr'bō-plat'in)
A platinum-containing anticancer agent much like cisplatin but more toxic to the myeloid elements of bone marrow while producing less nausea and neuro-,oto-, and nephrotoxicity; used in the chemotherapy of solid tumors.

carboplatin

An anticancer drug. A brand name is Paraplatin.

carboplatin

a cisplatin analog, but with fewer side-effects. Under investigation in the treatment of cancer in dogs. Myelosuppression limits the dose that can be used.
References in periodicals archive ?
A poster highlighting this work, "Hedgehog pathway inhibition delays regrowth of ovarian cancer following paclitaxel and carboplatinum only if initiated immediately after completion of chemotherapy," will be presented during a poster session on Tuesday, April 3, 2012, from 9:00 a.
Tetracycline Antiseptics Acetic acid Alcohol Chlorhexidine Cresylate Gentian violet Vehicles Benzalkonium chloride Polyethylene glycol Propylene glycol Salicylates Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Quinine Chemotherapeutic drugs Carboplatinum Cisplatinum Vinblastine Vincristine Loop diuretics Ethacrynic acid Furosemide Table 2 Agents that protect against ototoxicity Alpha lipoic acid Antioxidants Calcium Fosfomycin Glutathione Iron chelators
The BCIRG trial will evaluate AC followed by doxetaxel with and without Herceptin, and will also evaluate a non-anthracycline based regimen of docetaxel, carboplatinum and Herceptin.
The pivotal trial in head-and-neck cancer (Merck 001) evaluates the effects of C225 added to cis- or carboplatinum in patients who have shown progression of the cancer on the same dose and schedule of the platinum compound.
Product 1 Acidum Folicum 5Mg 2 Aciclovirum 250Mg Fl 3 Allopurinolum 100Mg 4 Albendazolum 5 Carbazochromi Salycilas 6 Carboplatinum 150 Mg 7 Caspofunginum 50Mg 8 Cetirizinum 10Mg Ml 9 Ciprofloxacinum 0.
In Phase I clinical trials with patients having rapidly progressing cancers that have failed and become refractory (resistant) to approved first line treatments such as Taxol, Carboplatinum, Navelbine or Gemsitibine or combinations thereof, is IGT's cancer drug Anhydrovinblastine (AVLB).
Paclitaxel represented the standard second-line chemotherapy for ovarian cancer patients, but is now widely used as first-line therapy with cisplatinum or carboplatinum for the majority of patients,'' Professor Carmichael said.