0 was later used to determine the correlations of these CMDTs: shovel-shaped incisors (11 versus 12, 21 versus 22, FDI notation), Carabelli's cusp (16 versus 17, 26 versus 27, FDI notation), cusp pattern (36 versus 37, 46 versus 47, FDI notation), cusp number (36 versus 37, 46 versus 47, FDI notation), cusp 6 and cusp 7 (36 versus 37, 46 vs 47, FDI notation), and protostylid (36 versus 37, 46 versus 47, FDI notation) by means of the Spearman non-parametric correlation test.
Significant differences of these CMDTs were observed: Carabelli's cusp, configuration of cusps X5 and X6 (36, 46, FDI notation), and +4 and +5 (37, 47, FDI notation), absence of hypocone reduction, relative frequency of cusp 7, and low frequency of shovel-shaped incisors and double shovel, which are typical of the groups belonging or influenced by populations of the Caucasoid dental complex.
Let's observe then that shovel-shaped incisors (11, 12, 21, 22, FDI notation) present high correlation; protostylid (36, 37, 46, 47, FDI notation) present moderate correlation; and Carabelli's cusp (16, 17, 26, 27, FDI notation) and cusp pattern (36, 37, 46, 47, FDI notation) present low correlation, while cusp number, and cusp 6 and 7 between lower molars do not present any kind of correlation (table 3).
In order to establish biological affinity with world human populations, African populations, and afrodescendant American and Colombian populations, a distance matrix was performed obtaining a dendogram which allowed calculating macroevolutive biological relations among the sample, based on geographical, sociocultural, and biological models of distribution and behavior of population groups different to the frequency of these CMDTs: incisors in shovel, Carabelli's cusp, cusp pattern, protostylid, cusp 6, and cusp 7.
However, the CDTMs that more commonly characterize these groups are: a higher frequency of cuspid expression of the Carabelli's cusp, and cuspid patterns X and +.
Again, Zoubov (17) suggested that the Caucasoid dental complex may be divided in two groups: a Northern one, with high Mongoloid influence characterized by high frequencies of shovel-shaped incisors, +5 cuspid patter, and Carabelli's cusp (cuspid shapes), and a southern one, characterized by the absence of shovel-shaped incisors, Y3 and Y4 cuspid patterns, and in general a very simplified dental morphology similar to that of sundadontic groups.
Jackson et al (28) suggested that the dental registrations of bone remains of more than 200 individuals excavated form a cemetery of African slaves of the 16th and 17th centuries in New York (New York African Burial Ground NYABG) present a wide range of biological affinity with populations of North and South Africa, considering the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, Y cusp pattern, and cusp 7.
In the case of Colombia, Rocha et al (11) studied eleven CDTMs in a group of Afro-Americans from Puerto Tejada (Cauca) finding out high frequencies of Carabelli's cusp of medium size (degree 5), cusp patterns +5 and +6, and cusp 7; they associated this finding with the influence of Western dental complex (Caucasoid and Negroid).
This may be associated to significant frequencies of shovelshaped incisors, Carabelli's cusp (especially occurring by phosomorphs 3 and 4), cusp patterns + and Y with molars of 5 and 6 cusps, deflecting wrinkle, degree 1 protostylid (foramen caecum), and cusp 7.