CXCR4


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Wikipedia.
Related to CXCR4: CCR5

CXCR4

A gene on chromosome 2q21 that encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the CXC chemokine receptor family, which binds specifically to stromal cell-derived factor-1, transducing a signal by increasing intracellular calcium ions and enhancing MAPK1/MAPK3 activation. It acts as a receptor for extracellular ubiquitin, is involved in haematopoiesis and in cardiac ventricular septum formation, plays a role in gastrointestinal tract vascularisation by regulating vascular branching and/or remodelling in endothelial cells, may be involved in cerebellar development and, in the CNS, may mediate hippocampal-neuron survival.

Molecular pathology
CXCR4 acts with the CD4 to support HIV entry into cells; it is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. CXCR4 mutations cause WHIM (warts, hypogammaglobulinaemia, infections, and myelokathexis) syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
Messenger RNA expression levels of CXCR4 correlate with metastatic behavior and outcome in patients with osteosarcoma.
Expression of co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 were positively correlated with plasma viraemia, with this correlation reaching significance only in case of CCR5 expression on pDCs ([rho]= 0.
Immunostaining for CXCR4 Expression on Different Types of Progenitor Cells: The binding of fucoidan to L -selectin results in externalization of premade CXCR4 onto the cell surface.
We molecularly cloned and expressed the WEAU HIV-1 envelope (env) gene in pTZ19U and determined its tropism from CXCR4 and CCR5 expressing cells.
NOX-A12 has also been shown to inhibit chemotaxis of patient-derived primary CLL cells towards higher concentrations of CXCL12 and to have distinct properties from CXCR4 antagonists2.
X4P-001-IO is an investigational selective, oral, small molecule inhibitor of CXCR4 (C-X-C receptor type 4) that regulates the tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing endogenous anti-tumor responses.
In 2006, Ratajczak et al identified Very Small Embryonic Like stem cells (VSELs) in the adult murine bone marrow and proved that these cells are pluripotent and express oct4, SSEA1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and CXCR4 (4) (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4).
In addition, they found that a molecule produced by the cancer cells themselves (CXCL12) works with CXCR4 to further the growth of cancer by stimulating the expression of the cyclin D1 protein, which promotes cell division via a signaling pathway outlined in the study.
The technique hinges on the fact that the virus typically enters T cells by latching onto one of two surface proteins known as CCR5 and CXCR4.
Various subpopulations of pancreatic cancer stem cells have been shown to overexpress the genes CD44, CXCR4, OCT4, and S100P, which are involved in various aspects of cancer growth and spread.