To that end, Taichman said he was surprised at the large role played by the protein CXCL16
in altering the healing type cells in such a way that they revved the cancer cells into overdrive.
30) showed with the matrigel invasion assay that both CXCL12 and CXCL16
induced invasion with PC3 cell lines, but they did not report investigating the effects of CXCL9, CXCL1, or CXCL14.
These arrays have been featured in hundreds of publications, including research published in Nature (2008; 455; 391-395, Human PDGF-AA), Nature Medicine (2007; 13: 742-747, Mouse G-CSF), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (2007; 104: 7438-7443, Mouse CXCL16
, SDF-1), FASEB Journal (2009; 23: 351-361, Mouse SDF-1, SCF), and the Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007; 282: 34510-34524).
Six genes were selected for confirmation by real-time PCR, and of these, CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 were the most significantly affected by benzene exposure, a finding that was confirmed in a larger data set from 28 subjects.
Assays used were as follows: TBP (endogenous control), Hs99999910_m1; CXCL16, Hs00222859_m1; IL4R, Hs00166237_m1; JUN, Hs00277190_s1; PF4, Hs00427220_g1; PTPRE, Hs00369944_m1; ZNF331, Hs00367929_m1.
Other genes of note that were up-regulated were ZNF331, PTPRE, toll-like receptor 2, the chemokine CXCL16, and CD44 antigen (Table 1).
However, several had high ratios of differential expression between exposed and controls, with PBEF1, IFNGR1, and CXCL16 being increased around 100% (Table 3).
Increased production of CXCL16
in experimental and clinical heart failure: a possible role in extracellular matrix remodeling.
IL-18 accelerates atherosclerosis accompanied by elevation of IFN-gamma and CXCL16
expression independently of T cells.
In experiments with mouse tissues, the UCSF researchers determined that the novel chemokine, which they named CXCL16 (for 16th chemokine of the CXC subfamily) is produced by cells within the spleen and lymph nodes -- including the so-called dendritic cells which help trigger immune responses -- and also by cells in the spleen's red pulp.
The researchers speculate that CXCL16 made by dendritic cells might be important in helping activate CD8 T cells to make them into fully functional killer cells.
Mucosal surfaces are a port of entry for the HIV virus, and high expression of CXCL16 in the mucosa might influence the ability of infecting HIV particles to utilize the CXCL16 receptor as a co-receptor.