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abbreviation for Cheyne-Stokes respiration.


Abbreviation for:
caesarean section rate
cataract surgery rate
central serous retinopathy
central supply room
cervical spine radiography
cervical spondylotic radiculopathy
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
combat stress reaction
Comprehensive Spending Review (Medspeak-UK)
corrected survival rate
cortisol secretion rate
cytoskeletal reorganisation


(ret?in-op'a-the) [ retina + -pathy]
Any noninflammatory retinal damage or disease. It can cause gradual loss of vision or complete blindness if left untreated. It often results from another, systemic illness (e.g., hypertension or diabetes mellitus). See: table

albuminuric retinopathy

Hypertensive retinopathy.

arteriosclerotic retinopathy

Retinopathy accompanying generalized arteriosclerosis and hypertension.

central serous retinopathy

Abbreviation: CSR
Serous detachment under the macula due to leakage of fluid from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal space between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. It occurs most often in men aged 20 to 40, typically involves one eye, and often resolves spontaneously.

circinate retinopathy

A ring of degenerated white exudative area of the retina around the macula.
Synonym: circinate retinitis

diabetic retinopathy

Abbreviation: DR
Retinal damage marked by microaneurysms, hemorrhage, macular edema or macular ischemia, or retinal exudates in patients with longstanding diabetes mellitus. This common complication of long-standing diabetes may result in blindness. Strict control of blood sugar levels and of high blood pressure reduces the incidence of the disease. Regular ophthalmological screening helps to detect the disease before it causes irreversible visual loss. Treatment includes retinal laser surgery or vitrectomy.

DR is divided into two groups: non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) consisting of blot, dot hemorrhages, exudate, and macular edema; and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), consisting of abnormal new vessels and fibrotic tissue. Approximately 50% of patients who have had diabetes for more than 15 years will have some form of diabetic retinopathy.

See: visual field for illus

eclipse retinopathy

Solar retinopathy.

hypertensive retinopathy

Retinopathy associated with hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, or glomerulonephritis. Findings on physical examination include a hazy retina, blurred disk margins, distention of retinal arteries, retinal hemorrhages, and white patches in the fundus, esp. surrounding the papilla and at the stellate figure at the macula. Synonym: albuminuric retinitis; albuminuric retinopathy See: Keith-Wagener-Barker classification

retinopathy of prematurity

Abbreviation: ROP
A bilateral disease of the retinal vessels in preterm infants. It is the most prominent cause of blindness among preterm infants. Its cause is unknown despite much research, but oxygen levels and other environmental factors may be factors. The disease is marked by retinal neovascularization in the first weeks of life. Retinal detachment may occur. Cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation can be curative if instituted early in the illness. Synonym: retrolental fibroplasia

In treating preterm infants, it is possible to prevent ROP by using only the lowest possible effective oxygen concentration that will not endanger the life of the infant. Monitoring arterial blood oxygen levels is essential in preventing ROP. Too much restriction of oxygen, however, increases the likelihood of hyaline membrane disease and neurological disorders. All preterm infants treated with supplemental oxygen should be examined carefully by an ophthalmologist before discharge from the hospital. Once blindness develops, there is no effective treatment.

solar retinopathy

Pathological changes in the retina after looking directly at the sun. This condition is seen frequently following an eclipse of the sun. Synonym: eclipse retinopathy
See: scotoma, eclipse
arteriovenous nicking
blot hemorrhages
flame-shaped hemorrhages
focal or generalized arteriolar narrowing
hard exudates
macular edema
soft exudates (“cotton-wool”) spots

central serous retinopathy

Abbreviation: CSR
Serous detachment under the macula due to leakage of fluid from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal space between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. It occurs most often in men aged 20 to 40, typically involves one eye, and often resolves spontaneously.
See also: retinopathy
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To support customers designing in the BlueCore5-Multimedia into their products, CSR has also released its BlueTunes2 audio development kit, which offers complete hardware and software solutions for high-end mono and stereo headsets based on BlueCore5-Multimedia.