KRT19

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KRT19

A gene on chromosome 17q21.2 that encodes the smallest of all type-I keratin proteins, which is expressed in the periderm, the transiently superficial layer that surrounds the developing epidermis.
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The EPISPOT (epithelial immunospot) assay can detect tumor-specific proteins, such as full-length CK-19 released by CTCs (6).
They found that in patients with benign colon diseases, positive events that met the criteria for "tumor cells" were detected with both the CellSearch system and the CK-19 EPISPOT assay, whereas none of these events were found in healthy volunteers.
Real-time quantification of CK-19 mRNA-positive cells in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients using the light-cycler system.
Detection of CK-19 mRNA-positive cells in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with histologically and immunohistochemically negative axillary lymph nodes.
The subsequent approaches used to detect CTCs are (i) immunocytochemistry with anticytokeratin (anti-CK) antibodies; (ii) RT-PCR targeting various epithelial mRNAs, including CK-19 mRNA; and (iii) epithelial immunospot (EPISPOT) assays detecting tumor-specific proteins released by CTCs [e.
sample volume, avoidance of epidermal epithelial cell co-sampling in case epithelial markers such as CK-19 will be used later for CTC detection), sample shipping (stability of CTCs under different conditions), and storage conditions (use of preservatives or anticoagulants); (b) standardization of CTC isolation through the use of spiking controls in peripheral blood; (c) standardization of detection systems; and (d) interlaboratory- and intralaboratory-comparison studies for the same samples.
By using RT-qPCR, our group has shown that in early breast cancer the detection of peripheral blood CK-19 mRNA-positive cells is an independent prognostic factor for a reduced disease-free interval and overall survival for node-negative breast cancer patients.
Expression of cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen has been assessed in various odontogenic lesions, (26,27) and CK-19 has been shown to react with all kinds of odontogenic epithelial cells.
By use of this approach the presence of a small number of CTCs can be shown through the highly sensitive detection of epithelial markers such as CK-19 in the presence of millions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
According to the results of this assay, full-length CK-19 is released by viable epithelial tumor cells, and CK-19-releasing cells might constitute a biologically active subset of breast cancer cells with high metastatic properties (46).
A cell block section obtained in case 2 revealed papillary clusters and fragments with similar cytologic features, as noted in the aspirate smears, and these were immunohistochemically negative for CK-19 (Figure 5).
Immunoperoxidase stain performed on paraffin sections of SPHTN (cases 1 and 2) revealed no expression of CK-19.