Other genes that have emerged as significantly mutated genes in whole-exome sequencing studies of serous endometrial carcinomas are SPOP, a putative tumor suppressor gene; CDKN1A
[cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)], a bona fide cancer gene; TAF1; HCFC1R1 [host cell factor C1 regulator 1 (XPO1 dependent)]; CTDSPL [CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase-like]; YIPF3 (Yip1 domain family, member 3); and FAM132A (family with sequence similarity 132, member A) (17, 18).
Postmenopausal hormone therapy is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer lacking CDKN1A
It was also shown to increase the expression of CDKN1A
(p21), a gene that inhibits prostate cancer.
205846 (epithelial) CDKN1A
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor -2.
A second variant identified was in a gene called CDKN1A
which governs a number of tumour suppressing biological pathways.
The wide array of molecular-based PCa markers includes proliferation index (Ki-67), microvessel density, nuclear morphometry, tumor suppressor genes (eg, TP53, CDKN1A
, CDKN1B, NKX3-1, PTEN, and the retinoblastoma gene Rb), oncogenes (eg, BCL2, MYC, EZH2, and ERBB2 [formerly HER2/neu]), adhesion molecules (eg, CD44 and E-cadherin), the PI3K/Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway, (30,31) apoptosis regulators (eg, survivin and transforming growth factor p1), androgen receptor status, neuroendocrine differentiation markers, and prostate tissue lineage-specific markers (PSA, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, and prostate-specific membrane antigen).
The formula also increased expression of CDKN1A
, a gene that fights prostate cancer by inhibiting cancer-promoting cellular mechanisms.
The formula also significantly increased the expression of a gene that fights against prostate cancer, CDKN1A
, which works by specifically inhibiting other cancer-promoting cellular mechanisms.
miR-106b, which has been shown to be part of an oncogenic miRNA cluster that regulates PTEN, has been suggested to have a regulatory effect on CDKN1A
Immunohistochemical labeling of several genes including CDKN1A
, (12) PSCA, (7,13) MMP7, (14) MUC4, (15,16) CLDN18, (17) ANXA2, (18) BIRC5, (19,20) MUC5, (7) and S100P (21) in multiple PanIN lesions has shown a progressive increase in their expression from low- to high-grade PanINs and leading into invasive cancer.
Many p53 target genes, such as CDKN1A
, GADD45, BT[G.
is induced by RA through RARB in human neuroblastoma tumors (Cheung et al.