In 2006, the phase 1 clinical study was conducted for a CD28
superagonist antibody TGN1412 in six male human volunteers.
8 On the other hand, CD28
speeds up T-cell activities that are important for antigen-specific immune responses.
Utomilumab could potentially enhance T cell proliferation and activity by augmenting the CD28
costimulatory domain of Yescarta with exogenous 4-1BB signaling.
Results showed they retained binding to CD28
, ICOS, and HER2, and enhanced interferon-gamma production, promoted CD4 T cell and CD8 T cell proliferation, and promoted cell lysis (tumor killing), demonstrating in vitro proof of principle for T cell stimulation and proliferation in response to HER2-positive tumor cells.
Selective targeting of regulatory T cells with CD28
superagonists allows effective therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
regulates the translation of Bcl-xL via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.
Chemokine receptors, CD28
, CD4, and CD8 are well-known co-stimulatory receptors, while cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed-death receptor-1 (PD-1), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3), and leukocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) are co-inhibitory receptors.
Abatacept, CLTA-4-IgG1, has been developed to block CD28
and CD80 or CD86 interaction leading to the termination T cell activation.
One of his most important findings was to locate a receptor called CD28
that acts like a gas pedal.
Peripheral blood gene expression of B7 and CD28
family members associated with tumor progression and microscopic lymphovascular invasion in colon cancer patients.
, RGMb (repulsive guidance molecule family member b), and CTLA-4 (cyto-toxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) are only some of the players.
Examples under current assessment in clinical trials include: mTOR inhibitors; fully humanised antibody biologies; glucocorticoid receptor antagonists; recombinant humanised antibodies; and CD28