Kissane (116) also included other CAKUT abnormalities, such as abnormalities of position, form, and orientation, whereas Elkin and Bernstein118 added categories of other genetic disorders complicated by renal cysts, such as the trisomy syndromes and the tuberous sclerosis complex.
1" in Liapis and Winyard (121)) and offers additional tables that display entities within the differential diagnosis of glomerulocystic kidney disease and the developmental defects within the CAKUT spectrum and a lengthy tabulation of many genetic syndromes complicated by CAKUT (see Table 26.
The diverse entities characterized by the metanephric dysgenesis and LUT abnormalities of CAKUT are clustered together into the second category that accommodates their occurrence in sporadic, syndromic, and multiple malformation syndromes, while allowing for combinations of renal and LUT defects that can affect the same kidney.
The classification listed in Table 12 strives to meet the first 2 objectives cited above, but likely falls short in some respects, and with the pace of discovery in RCD/ CAKUT, it will soon be obsolete.
How they begin and how they end: classic and new theories for the development and deterioration of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, CAKUT.