Chlamydia trachomatis

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Chla·myd·i·a tra·cho·ma·tis

spheric nonmotile bacteria that are obligatory intracellular organisms; they form compact intracytoplasmic microcolonies up to 10 mcm in diameter that (by division) give rise to infectious spherules 0.3 mcm or larger in diameter, accumulate glycogen for a limited period in sufficient quantity to be detected by iodine stain, and are usually susceptible to sulfadiazine, tetracycline, and quinalones; various strains of this species cause trachoma, inclusion and neonatal conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, mouse pneumonitis, nonspecific urethritis, epididymitis, cervicitis, salpingitis, proctitis, and pneumonia; chief agent of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S.; the type species of the genus Chlamydia.

Chlamydia trachomatis

STD A human pathogen, similar to gonorrhea in transmission and disease; it is found in the cervix and urethra and survives in the throat or rectum Epidemiology It is the most common STD agent in the US–causing ± 4.5 million cases/yr; it is present in 1-3% of all ♂ and 15-40% of ♀ in STD clinics Clinical Inclusion conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, urethritis, epididymitis and proctitis in ♂, mucopurulent cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis–C trachomatis is implicated in 50% of salpingitis and PID, bartholinitis, and acute urethral syndrome in ♀ and conjunctivitis and pneumonia in neonates; infection may be asymptomatic Diagnosis Direct fluorescent antibody staining, solid phase immunoassay, ELISA, cell culture, nucleic acid probe, PCR Complications Fallopian tube destruction, ±infertility, ectopic/tubal pregnancy, preterm delivery, severe PID Management Doxycycline, azithromycin. Cf Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Chla·myd·i·a tra·cho·ma·tis

(klă-mi'dē-a trak-ō'mă-tis)
Spheric nonmotile organisms that accumulate glycogen and are susceptible to sulfadiazine and tetracycline; various strains of this species cause trachoma, inclusion and neonatal conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, nonspecific urethritis, epididymitis, cervicitis, salpingitis, proctitis, and pneumonia; chief agent of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. The type species of the genus Chlamydia.

Chlamydia trachomatis

A species that causes a great variety of diseases, including genital infections in men and women. The diseases caused by C. trachomatis include conjunctivitis, epididymitis, lymphogranuloma venereum, pelvic inflammatory disease, pneumonia, trachoma, tubal scarring, and infertility.

C. trachomatis is a commonly sexually transmitted pathogen (causing more than a million chlamydial infections in the U.S. each year). Men with chlamydial infection experience penile discharge and discomfort while urinating. Women may be asymptomatic or may experience urethral or vaginal discharge, painful or frequent urination, lower abdominal pain, or acute pelvic inflammatory disease, which may result in infertility.

Transmission of the disease can be prevented by avoiding contact with infected people and by using condoms during intimate sex. A pregnant woman with a chlamydial infection can transmit the disease to her newborn during birth. In newborns, ophthalmic antibiotic solution should be instilled in the conjunctival sac of each eye to prevent neonatal conjunctivitis and blindness caused by Chlamydia.

Diagnosis

Several tests are available, including cultures, antigen detection assays, ligase chain reactions, polymerase chain reactions, and enzyme-linked immunoassays.

Treatment

Erythromycin, azithromycin, or tetracycline is effective.

CAUTION!

Tetracyclines are generally not recommended for pregnant women or children under 8 years old.
See also: Chlamydia