Clostridium botulinum

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Clos·trid·i·um bot·u·li·'num

a bacterial species that occurs widely in nature and is a frequent cause of food poisoning (botulism) from preserved meats, fruits, or vegetables that have not been properly sterilized before canning. The main types, A-F, are characterized by antigenically distinct, but pharmacologically similar, very potent neurotoxins, each of which can be neutralized only by the specific antitoxin; group C toxin contains at least two components; the recorded cases of human botulism have been due mainly to types A, B, E, and F; infant botulism occurs when colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with Clostridium botulinum results in absorption of the toxin through the gastrointestinal wall; type Cα causes botulism in domestic and wild water fowl; Cβ and D are associated with intoxications in cattle. Type E is usually associated with improperly processed fish products.

Clostridium botulinum

Etymology: Gk, kloster, spindle
a species of anaerobic bacteria that causes botulism in humans and botulism-like diseases in other animals. Botulinus food poisoning results from ingesting food containing preformed toxins produced by the species. It is a proteolytic pathogen commonly present in soil, where its endospores can survive for years. Their resistance to heat makes them an important source of poisoning in improperly cooked or canned foods.

Clostridium botulinum

Microbiology A gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobe which produces a potent neurotoxin. See Botulism.

Clos·trid·i·um bot·u·li·num

(klos-trid'ē-ŭm bot-chū-lī'nŭm)
A bacterial species that occurs widely in nature and is a frequent cause of food poisoning (botulism) from preserved meats, fruits, or vegetables that have not been properly sterilized before canning.

Clostridium

a genus of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria of the family Bacillaceae. Most are gram-positive rods.

Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium sordelli
see malignant edema.
Clostridium botulinum
causes botulism from neurotoxin produced during vegetative growth. C. botulinum types B, C and D are associated with disease in animals but the type prevalence varies geographically. See botulism.
Clostridium butyricum
involved in the spoilage of meat.
Clostridium cadaveris
may be associated with colitis X in horses.
Clostridium chauvoei
formerly called C. feseri. See blackleg.
Clostridium colinum
cause of ulcerative enteritis and liver necrosis in quail, turkeys, grouse, partridge and chickens. Not an accredited species.
Clostridium difficile
see antibiotic-associated colitis.
Clostridium feseri
now called C. chauvoei (above).
Clostridium haemolyticum
formerly called C. novyi type D. See bacillary hemoglobinuria.
Clostridium histolyticum
a species found in feces, soil and sometimes wound infections. An important cause of meat spoilage.
Clostridium nigrificans
a thermophilic spoiler of canned meat producing hydrogen sulfide gas and causing purple staining of the inside of the can. Now called Desulfotomaculum nigrificans.
Clostridium novyi
see infectious necrotic hepatitis. See also C. haemolyticum (above). Previously called C. oedematiens. Type A causes malignant edema in cattle and sheep, and big head in rams, type B causes infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease), and type C has been associated with osteomyelitis in buffalo.
Clostridium overgrowth
see bacterial overgrowth.
Clostridium parabotulinum
a proteolytic subgroup of C. botulinum; not a valid species.
Clostridium perfringens
cause of enterotoxemia. Type A causes malignant edema, type B causes dysentery in lambs and enterotoxemia, type C causes struck in sheep and necrotic enteritis in piglets, type D causes enterotoxemia and type E causes necrotic enteritis. Previously called C. welchii.
Clostridium putrefaciens
causes deep bone taint in hams. See also C. putrificum (below).
Clostridium putrificum
a cause of bone taint in cured hams. There is no detectable abnormality on the surface of the ham.
Clostridium septicum
formerly called C. septique. See malignant edema, braxy.
Clostridium sordelli
cause of a small proportion of cases of gas gangrene in ruminants. See also abomasitis.
Clostridium spiroforme
associated with enteritis and enterocolitis in rabbits, guinea pigs and foals.
Clostridium sporogenes
an apathogenic clostridium often found in lesions of gas gangrene.
Clostridium tetani
a common inhabitant of soil and human and horse intestines, and the cause of tetanus in humans and domestic animals.
Clostridium villosum
found in fight abscesses and pleurisy in cats.
Clostridium welchii
see C. perfringens (above).
References in periodicals archive ?
The differential diagnoses being considered for this case-patient included the following: viral encephalitis, meningitis, brain stem lesion, myasthenia gravis, and infectious agents, specifically, C.
An opened jar of peanut butter from the home yielded positive test results for C.
Test results for 5 of 8 stool specimens were positive for either C.
By cross neutralization tests of their respective toxins the different C.
Early chromosomal DNA-DNA homology studies (53) showed that the single species decision did not hold up to modern nucleic acid based taxonomical scrutiny and later C.
Botulinum neurotoxins are the most poisonous poison known to the humankind produced by strains of C.
Recently, PCR-ELISA has been used for the study of prevalence of C.
The first report about genomic characterization of C.
Schiavo G, Shone CC, Rossetto O, Alexander FC, Montecucco C.
A 10-fold dilution of purified DNA was used from type A and type B C.
This multiplex PCR might be useful in the diagnosis of food-borne clostridial pathogens- C.
perfringens and Dr Riikka Keto, Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, University of Helsinki, Finland, for providing the DNA of C.