Bystander Effect

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Immunology See Bystander suppression
Molecular biology The secondary effects on adjacent cells and tissues triggered by treatment of a primary target with a therapeutic agent.
Molecular medicine An anticancer effect of unknown origin evoked by some forms of gene therapy in which a treatment—e.g., p53 therapy—kills more tumour cells than can be accounted for by the number of cells actually expressing an inserted gene bystander effect
Psychology Bystander apathy A type of social phenomenon in which person ‘A' is less likely to assist a person 'B' in need of help, when other people are present, than when ‘A’ is alone
References in periodicals archive ?
But Nayla Nahas, an assistant professor of psychology at Balamand University, cautioned against assuming that the bystander effect was the only way to explain witness inaction in this particular incident.
However, the bystander effect does not explain the brutality of Zhou Xijun, who took the life of an infant, while committing what started out as a non-violent crime of opportunity.
A single alpha particle can induce bystander effects in a population of cells, thus the sensitivity of primary oocytes to low doses of [.
Some untreated lesions also responded: this was the bystander effect, consistent with that seen in the phase I trial.
Finally, with regard to explanatory power, the studies explained, by way of gender and size, less than one-tenth of the variability for gaining assistance; thus other variables need to be considered, such as the demeanor of the traveler, ethnicity, race, languages in use by the populace, the influence of the bystander effect or people traveling in groups, extreme weather and lighting conditions, clothing, and the phenotype of the traveler.
The new study, reported in the journal Cancer Research, showed that the bystander effect relied on nitric oxide.
It's unequivocal that there's a bystander effect," says Eric J.
The research-tested curriculum will create awareness among Flint students while introducing the most effective tools to combat negative social conformity, the bystander effect, and to empower Flint's youth to take action in their community.
Not all cancer researchers have observed this bystander effect, notes Larry M.
The mechanism by which PV-10's bystander effect is produced was investigated using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and melanoma tumors in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice.
A third poster presentation (Abstract 1470), entitled Ad-ISF35 Intratumoral Administration Induces a Bystander Effect and Immune-Mediated Tumor Rejection with a Safe Vector Biodistribution and Toxicology Profile In a NHL Mouse Model, described results from a preclinical study showing that Ad-ISF35 injected directly into the tumors of mice bearing subcutaneous NHL breaks tumor tolerance and induced complete tumor regression and immunity to tumor rechallenge.
Additional data on untreated tumors corroborated observations of a possible bystander effect seen during earlier Phase 1 testing.