diuretics

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Diuretics

 

Definition

Diuretics are medicines that help reduce the amount of water in the body.

Purpose

Diuretics are used to treat the buildup of excess fluid in the body that occurs with some medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. Some diuretics are also prescribed to treat high blood pressure. These drugs act on the kidneys to increase urine output. This reduces the amount of fluid in the bloodstream, which in turn lowers blood pressure.

Description

There are several types of diuretics, also called water pills:
  • Loop diuretics, such as bumetanide (Bumex) and furosemide (Lasix), get their name from the loopshaped part of the kidneys where they have their effect.
  • Thiazide diuretics include such commonly used diuretics as hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL, Esidrix), chlorothiazide (Diuril), and chlorthalidone (Hygroton).
  • Potassium-sparing diuretics prevent the loss of potassium, which is a problem with other types of diuretics. Examples of potassium-sparing diuretics are amiloride (Midamor) and triamterene (Dyrenium).
In addition, some medicines contain combinations of two diuretics. The brands Dyazide and Maxzide, for example, contain the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide with the potassium-sparing diuretic triamterene.
Some nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines contain diuretics. However, the medicines described here cannot be bought without a physician's prescription. They are available in tablet, capsule, liquid, and injectable forms.

Recommended dosage

The recommended dosage depends on the type of diuretic and may be different for different patients. Check with the physician who prescribed the drug or the pharmacist who filled the prescription for the correct dosage, and take the medicine exactly as directed.

Precautions

Seeing a physician regularly while taking a diuretic is important. The physician will check to make sure the medicine is working as it should and will watch for unwanted side effects.
Some people feel unusually tired when they first start taking diuretics. This effect usually becomes less noticeable over time, as the body adjusts to the medicine.
Because diuretics increase urine output, people who take this medicine may need to urinate more often, even during the night. Health care professionals can help patients schedule their doses to avoid interfering with their sleep or regular activities.
For patients taking the kinds of diuretics that rob potassium from the body, physicians may recommend adding potassium-rich foods or drinks, such as citrus fruits and juices, to the diet. Or they may suggest taking a potassium supplement or taking another medicine that keeps the body from losing too much potassium. If the physician recommends any of these measures, be sure to closely follow his or her directions. Do not make other diet changes without checking with the physician. People who are taking potassium-sparing diuretics should not add potassium to their diets, as too much potassium may be harmful.
People who take diuretics may lose too much water or potassium when they get sick, especially if they have severe vomiting and diarrhea. They should check with their physicians if they become ill.
These medicines make some people feel lightheaded, dizzy, or faint when they get up after sitting or lying down. Older people are especially likely to have this problem. Drinking alcohol, exercising, standing for long periods, or being in hot weather may make the problem worse. To lessen the problem, get up gradually and hold onto something for support if possible. Avoid drinking too much alcohol and be careful in hot weather or when exercising or standing for a long time.
Anyone who is taking a diuretic should be sure to tell the health care professional in charge before having surgical or dental procedures, medical tests, or emergency treatment.
Some diuretics make the skin more sensitive to sunlight. Even brief exposure to sun can cause a severe sunburn, itching, a rash, redness, or other changes in skin color. While being treated with this medicine, avoid being in direct sunlight, especially between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m.; wear a hat and tightly woven clothing that covers the arms and legs; use a sunscreen with a skin protection factor (SPF) of at least 15; protect the lips with a sun block lipstick; and do not use tanning beds, tanning booths, or sunlamps. People with fair skin may need to use a sunscreen with a higher skin protection factor.

Special conditions

People who have certain medical conditions or who are taking certain other medicines may have problems if they take diuretics. Before taking these drugs, be sure to let the physician know about any of these conditions:
ALLERGIES. Anyone who has had unusual reactions to diuretics or sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) in the past should let his or her physician know before using a diuretic. The physician should also be told about any allergies to foods, dyes, preservatives, or other substances.
PREGNANCY. Diuretics will not help the swelling of hands and feet that some women have during pregnancy. In general, pregnant women should not use diuretics unless a physician recommends their use. Although studies have not been done on pregnant women, studies of laboratory animals show that some diuretics can cause harmful effects when taken during pregnancy.
BREASTFEEDING. Some diuretics pass into breast milk, but no reports exist of problems in nursing babies whose mothers use this medicine. However, thiazide diuretics may decrease the flow of breast milk. Women who are breastfeeding and need to use a diuretic should check with their physicians.
OTHER MEDICAL CONDITIONS. Side effects of some diuretics may be more likely in people who have had a recent heart attack or who have liver disease or severe kidney disease. Other diuretics may not work properly in people with liver disease or severe kidney disease. Diuretics may worsen certain medical conditions, such as gout, kidney stones, pancreatitis, lupus erythematosus, and hearing problems. In addition, people with diabetes should be aware that diuretics may increase blood sugar levels. People with heart or blood vessel disease should know that some diuretics increase cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The risk of an allergic reaction to certain diuretics is greater in people with bronchial asthma. Before using diuretics, people with any of these medical problems should make sure their physicians are aware of their conditions. Also, people who have trouble urinating or who have high potassium levels in their blood may not be able to take diuretics and should check with a physician before using them.
USE OF CERTAIN MEDICINES. Taking diuretics with certain other drugs may affect the way the drugs work or may increase the chance of side effects.

Side effects

Some side effects, such as loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and dizziness, usually lessen or go away as the body adjusts to the medicine. These problems do not need medical attention unless they continue or interfere with normal activities.
Patients taking potassium-sparing diuretics should know the signs of too much potassium and should check with a physician as soon as possible if any of these symptoms occur:
  • irregular heartbeat
  • breathing problems
  • numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, or lips
  • confusion or nervousness
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • weak or heavy feeling in the legs
Patients taking diuretics that cause potassium loss should know the signs of too little potassium and should check with a physician as soon as possible if they have any of these symptoms:
  • fast or irregular heartbeat
  • weak pulse
  • nausea or vomiting
  • dry mouth
  • excessive thirst
  • muscle cramps or pain
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • mental or mood changes

Interactions

Diuretics may interact with other medicines. When this happens, the effects of one or both of the drugs may change or the risk of side effects may be greater. Anyone who takes a diuretic should let the physician know all other medicines he or she is taking and should ask whether the possible interactions can interfere with drug therapy. Among the drugs that may interact with diuretics are:
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), and enalapril (Vasotec), used to treat high blood pressure. Taking these drugs with potassium-sparing diuretics may cause levels of potassium in the blood to be too high, increasing the chance of side effects.
  • Cholesterol-lowering drugs such as cholestyramine (Questran) and colestipol (Colestid). Taking these drugs with combination diuretics such as Dyazide and Maxzide may keep the diuretic from working. Take the diuretic at least one hour before or four hours after the cholesterol-lowering drug.
  • Cyclosporine (Sandimmune), a medicine that suppresses the immune system. Taking this medicine with potassium-sparing diuretics may increase the chance of side effects by causing levels of potassium in the blood to be too high.
  • Potassium supplements, other medicines containing potassium, or salt substitutes that contain potassium. Taking these with potassium-sparing diuretics may lead to too much potassium in the blood, increasing the chance of side effects.
  • Lithium, used to treat bipolar disorder (manicdepressive illness). Using this medicine with potassium-sparing diuretics may allow lithium to build up to poisonous levels in the body.
  • Digitalis heart drugs, such as digoxin (Lanoxin). Using this medicine with combination diuretics such as triamterene-hydrocholorthiazide (Dyazide, Maxzide) may cause blood levels of the heart medicine to be too high, making side effects such as changes in heartbeat more likely.
The list above does not include every drug that may interact with diuretics. Check with a physician or pharmacist before combining diuretics with any other prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicine.

Key terms

Inflammation — Pain, redness, swelling, and heat that usually develop in response to injury or illness.
Lupus erythematosus — A chronic disease that affects the skin, joints, and certain internal organs.
Pancreas — A gland located beneath the stomach. The pancreas produces juices that help break down food.
Potassium — A mineral found in whole grains, meat, legumes, and some fruits and vegetables. Potassium is important for many body processes, including proper functioning of the nerves and muscles.
Triglyceride — A substance formed in the body from fat in the diet. Triglycerides are the main fatty materials in the blood. Together with protein, they make up high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDLs and LDLs). Triglyceride levels are important in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases including high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease.

diuretics

substances contained in food and drink (e.g. caffeine), or given as medication, that increase the secretion of urine by the kidneys (diuresis). Used in medicine as a treatment for high blood pressure. In sport the use of diuretics for two main purposes is banned: as a means of losing fluid, and thus weight, in sports such as boxing and weight lifting, which have weight categories or in an attempt to increase the production of urine and thus the excretion of a banned drug, to avoid detection. Drugs and the law.

diuretics

powerful drugs, often termed 'water tablets', that control hypertension and peripheral oedema; action of some local anaesthetics is antagonized by concomitant use of some diuretics (see Table 1), e.g. aldosterone antagonists (e.g. spironolactone); carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, e.g. acetazolamide; loop diuretics, e.g. furosemide; osmotic diuretics, e.g. mannitol; potassium-sparing diuretics, e.g. amiloride, or in combination with other diuretics; thiazide diuretics, e.g. bendroflumethiazide
Table 1: Principal drug interactions of local anaesthetic agents and other medications
Local anaesthetic agent Proprietary name Principal drug interactionsEffect of interaction
Lidocaine
Xylocaine
Antiarrhythmic agents
Antibacterial agents
Antipsychotics
Antivirals
Beta-blockers
Diuretics
Dolasetron
Ulcer-healing drugs
Increased myocardial depression
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if lidocaine is given with quinpristin/dalfopristin
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if lidocaine is given with any drug that prolongs the QT interval of the cardiac cycle
Plasma concentration of lidocaine increased by amprenavir, atazanavir and lopinavir
Increased myocardial depression
Increased risk of lidocaine toxicity when given with propranolol
The action of lidocaine is antagonized by the hypokalaemia caused by acetazolamide, loop diuretics or thiazide and related diuretics (i.e. a greater dose of lidocaine would be required to achieve anaesthesia)
Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia if lidocaine is given with dolasetron
Plasma concentration of lidocaine increased when given with cimetidine; risk of lidocaine toxicity increased with cimetidine
Bupivacaine
Marcain
Levo-bupivacaine
Chirocaine
Beta-blockersIncreased risk of bupivacaine toxicity when given with propranolol
Increased risk of myocardial depression if given with other antiarrhythmic agents
Prilocaine
Citanest
Antiarrhythmic agents
Antibacterial agents
Increased risk of myocardial depression if given with antiarrhythmic agents
Increased risk of methaemoglobinaemia if given with sulphonamide antibacterial agents
Ropivacaine
Naropin
AntidepressantsMetabolism of ropivacaine is inhibited by fluvoxamine, thereby enhancing the risk of ropivacaine toxicity
Mepivacaine
Scandonest
Drug not listed in the British National Formulary