In addition, a competent intermediate host snail, Bulinus
truncatus, was identified in rivers in Corsica (online Technical Appendix Table 1, http://wwwnc.
Lymnaea, Indoplanorbis, Bulinus
, Physa, Gyraulus, Bellamaya and Oncomelania.
These were Bulinidae: Bulinus
forskali (Ehrenberg), B.
The 95% ethanol extract of the whole plant is reported to exhibit molluscicidal activity against Biomorphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus
truncalus (Hadi 1984).
Hybrid origin of polyploidy in freshwater snails of the genus Bulinus
globosus serves as an intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium.
truncatus shells from a playa site in the north of the region yielded a date of 4020 [+ or -] 40 bp (Brooks et al.
haematobium, planorbid snails, Bulinus
spp are found in natural bodies of water used for drinking, domestic purposes and recreation by the communities.
Schistosomes causing human disease Schistosoma Intermediate species Geographical area snail host Haematobium Africa, Madagascar, Bulinus
Zanzibar, Pemba, Middle East Intercalatum Central and West Africa Bulinus
Mansoni Africa, Madagascar, Biomphalaria Gulf of Arabia, Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname, Caribbean Islands Japonicum China, Philippines Oncomelania mainland, Indonesia Mekongi Laos, Cambodia Tricula Egg Egg production characteristics (number/day) Terminal spine 20-200 Terminal spine Unknown Lateral spine 100-300 No spine 500-3 500 No spine Unknown Schistosoma species Location of adult worms Haematobium Terminal venules of the genitourinary system and pelvic plexus Intercalatum Pericolonic plexus Mansoni Pericolonic plexus Japonicum Pericolonic plexus Mekongi Pericolonic plexus
Stems and roots of the plant have been shown to be toxic to Bulinus
globulus, a fresh water snail vector of schistosomosis (Adewunmi 1980).
Leishmania infantum Leishmaniasis Phlebotomus perniciosus Activity temp: 15-28[degrees]C Phlebotomus ariasi Survival temp: 5-30[degrees]C Lyme disease Ixodes ricinus Borrelia burgdorferi Activity temp: 7-30[degrees]C MSF Rhipicephalus sanguineus Rickettsia conorii Schistosomiasis Bulinus
Genetic and morphological variation of populations belonging to the Bulinus
truncatus/tropicus complex (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in south western Zimbabwe.