buffer solution

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solution

 [so-loo´shun]
1. a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dispersed molecularly in a sufficient quantity of dissolving medium (solvent).
2. in pharmacology, a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances, which are usually dissolved in water. For names of specific solutions, see under the name.
3. the process of dissolving or disrupting.
4. a loosening or separation.

Preparation of Solutions. Formula for preparing solutions from a pure drug:


For example, to prepare 2000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from boric acid crystals, the proportion would be

Formula for preparing solutions from stock solutions:

For example, to prepare 1000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from a 4 per cent stock solution, the proportion would be
aqueous solution one in which water is used as the solvent.
BCG solution an aqueous suspension of bacille Calmette-Guérin for instillation into the bladder to activate the immune system in treatment of superficial bladder cancers. It reduces the risk of a subsequent bladder cancer developing, although the exact mechanism of action is unknown.
buffer solution one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution (colloidal solution) imprecise term for colloid (def. 3).
hyperbaric solution one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
isobaric solution a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 equivalent weight of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
saturated solution one in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution one containing an irritant substance (sclerosing agent) that will cause obliteration of a space, as in sclerotherapy.
standard solution one that contains in each liter a definitely stated amount of reagent; usually expressed in terms of normality (equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution) or molarity (moles of solute per liter of solution).
supersaturated solution an unstable solution containing more of the solute than it can permanently hold.
volumetric solution one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.

buffer solution

Etymology: ME, buffet + L, solutus, dissolved
a solution that will minimize changes in pH value despite dilution or addition of a small amount of base or acid.

buffer solution

A solution of a weak acid and its salt, e.g., carbonic acid, sodium bicarbonate, important in maintaining a constant pH, esp. of the blood.
See also: solution

solution

1. a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances usually dissolved in water.
2. the process of dissolving or disrupting.

aqueous solution
one in which water is used as the solvent.
buffer solution
one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution, colloidal solution
a preparation consisting of minute particles of matter suspended in a solvent.
hyperbaric solution
one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution
one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
iodine solution
a transparent, reddish brown liquid, each 100 ml of which contains 1.8 to 2.2 g of iodine and 2.1 to 2.6 g of sodium iodide; a local anti-infective.
iodine solution (strong)
Lugol's solution.
isobaric solution
a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution
a solution each liter of which contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution
a solution each liter of which contains 1 chemical equivalent of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution
a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
physiological saline solution, physiological salt solution, physiological sodium chloride solution
an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and other components, having an osmotic pressure identical to that of blood serum.
priming solution
the fluid used to fill tubing and the reservoir of a cardiac bypass unit before use.
saline solution
a solution of sodium chloride, or common salt, in purified water.
saturated solution
a solution in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution
one containing an irritant substance that will cause obliteration of a space, such as the lumen of a varicose vein or the cavity of a hernial sac.
standard solution
one containing a fixed amount of solute.
supersaturated solution
one containing a greater quantity of the solute than the solvent can hold in solution under ordinary conditions.
volumetric solution
one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.