The Spearman correlation coefficients between total THMs versus chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform were 0.
Approximately linear negative associations are shown for chloroform and positive associations are shown for bromoform, whereas the associations for bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane are nonlinear.
Disposition of bromodichloromethane in humans following oral and dermal exposure.
Effect of dosing vehicle on the developmental toxicity of bromodichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride in rats.
In toxicity tests with individual chemicals, two regulated DBPs (dibromoacetic acid at 400 mg/L, bromodichloromethane
at 150 mg/L) have been shown to delay puberty in rats (Christian et al.
However, the distribution among the four different THM species [chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane
(BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] can vary appreciably, depending on the concentration of bromide in the water at the time chlorine is added for disinfection (Obolensky and Singer 2005).
, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform were determined through an automatic thermal desorption unit (ATD 400; Perkin-Elmer, Madrid, Spain) coupled to a GC-electron capture detector (Perkin-Elmer).
Metabolic activation of bromodichloromethane
by GSTT1 may result in the formation of 8-oxo-guanidine DNA adducts that are repaired by base-excision repair through the expression of genes such as OGG1 (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase), APEX1 [APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1], and XRGC1 (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1).
The four THMs--chloroform, bromodichloromethane
, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform--were measured in exhaled breath before swimmers entered the swimming pool (80 min before swimming) and just after they swam (5 min after leaving the pool) (Figure 1), as markers of individual exposure to DBPs.
The metaanalyses for high versus low exposure for water chlorination (THM levels or chlorinated water) and bromodichloromethane
(BDCM) showed some excess of risk, but it was not statistically significant.
THM4 represents the sum of the concentrations of bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane
, and dibromochloromethane; HAA5 represents the sum of the concentrations of monobromoacetic acid, monochloroacetic acid, dibromoacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid.
A water sample collected in a plastic drinking water bottle by a hotel guest approximately 12 hr after the outbreak at hotel Y was tested with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for four trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane
, and dibromochloromethane) using a method similar to that of Cardinali et al.