This new finding helps us move towards a less dichotomous view where Broca's area
is not a center for speech production, but rather a critical area for integrating and coordinating information across other brain regions.
Generally, verbal fluency paradigms require expressive language and secondarily, language comprehension and therefore activations are noted in Broca's areas
and Wernicke's area in the dominant hemisphere, in addition to pre-motor cortex, posterior fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
For example, Figure 5(d) shows the visualization of fibers between medial frontal cortices and Broca's area
, both of which are involved in word production.
For example, the specimen KNM-ER 1470, a well-preserved early representative of Homo (disagreement exists as to species assignment) from East Africa, exhibits a probable Broca's area
(unlike australopithecines), and a definite hemispheric asymmetry.
The Broca's area
produces language or articulates words.
But the evocation of the pain, indignity, and anxiety is much less compelling than what follows, after the stroke strikes West's Broca's area
, and the book becomes a report on what it is like for a verbal maestro to find himself suddenly incommunicado.
The fMRI revealed split hemispheric dominance for language, with Broca's area
localizing to the left hemisphere and Wernicke's to the right hemisphere.
Evidence is emerging that implicates cortical areas, such as the mouth presentation in the primary motor cortex (M1, Brodmann's area 4, BA 4), Broca's area
(left inferior frontal region), the supplementary motor area (SMA, also known as Penfield's area), Brodmann's area 6 (BA 6, which is the SMA and superior lateral premotor region), the inferior lateral premotor cortex (BA 6/44), Wernicke's area, the auditory processing system, which includes the primary auditory cortex (BA 41/42), the auditory association cortex (BA 21/22), the anterior insula, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as well as the somatic sensory area (Brodal, 1981:835; Fox et al.
Findings from diffusion tensor imaging (a way-cool display of disrupted water flow in the brain that has to be seen to be appreciated) showed that the brains of both a small group of adolescents who had smoked marijuana daily for a year and a group of schizophrenic teens showed the same structural abnormalities in the fiber pathway that connects Broca's area
in the left frontal lobe with Wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe.
and colleagues used DTI to examine the arcuate fasciculus, a bundle of fibers connecting the Broca's area
in the left frontal lobe and the Wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe of the brain.
When Leborgne died shortly thereafter of a gangrenous infection, Broca's autopsy revealed a lesion in a part of the brain he referred to as the circonvolution du language, now known as Broca's area
Since then, brain studies have shown that active language development happens around 18 months of age in specific areas of the brain, including the development of the Wernick's area, which confers understanding, and matures before the Broca's area
, where the brain produces speech.