Broca's aphasia


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Related to Broca's aphasia: Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia, global aphasia

aphasia

 [ah-fa´zhah]
a type of speech disorder consisting of a defect or loss of the power of expression by speech, writing, or signs, or of comprehension of spoken or written language, due to disease or injury of the brain centers, such as after stroke syndrome on the left side.
Patient Care. Aphasia is a complex phenomenon manifested in numerous ways. The recovery period is often very long, even months or years. Because communication is such a vital part of everyday living, loss of the ability to communicate with words, whether in speaking or writing, can profoundly affect the personality and behavior of a patient. Although aphasic persons usually require extensive treatment by specially trained speech patholigists or therapists, all persons concerned with the care of the patient should practice techniques that will help minimize frustration and improve communication with such patients.
amnestic aphasia anomic aphasia.
anomic aphasia inability to name objects, qualities, or conditions. Called also amnestic or nominal aphasia.
ataxic aphasia expressive aphasia.
auditory aphasia loss of ability to comprehend spoken language. Called also word deafness.
Broca's aphasia motor aphasia.
conduction aphasia aphasia due to a lesion of the pathway between the sensory and motor speech centers.
expressive aphasia motor aphasia.
fluent aphasia that in which speech is well articulated (usually 200 or more words per minute) and grammatically correct but is lacking in content and meaning.
global aphasia total aphasia involving all the functions that go to make up speech and communication.
jargon aphasia that with utterance of meaningless phrases, either neologisms or incoherently arranged known words.
mixed aphasia combined expressive and receptive aphasia.
motor aphasia aphasia in which there is impairment of the ability to speak and write, owing to a lesion in the insula and surrounding operculum including Broca's motor speech area. The patient understands written and spoken words but has difficulty uttering the words. See also receptive aphasia. Called also logaphasia and Broca's, expressive, or nonfluent aphasia.
nominal aphasia anomic aphasia.
nonfluent aphasia motor aphasia.
receptive aphasia inability to understand written, spoken, or tactile speech symbols, due to disease of the auditory and visual word centers, as in word blindness. See also motor aphasia. Called also logamnesia and sensory or Wernicke's aphasia.
sensory aphasia receptive aphasia.
visual aphasia alexia.
Wernicke's aphasia receptive aphasia.

Broca's aphasia

[brō′kəz]
Etymology: Pierre P. Broca, French neurologist, 1824-1880
a type of aphasia consisting of nonfluent speech, with a laconic and hesitant, telegraphic quality caused by a large dominant hemisphere frontal lesion extending to the central sulcus. The patient's agrammatic speech is characterized by abundant nouns and verbs but few articles and prepositions, the resulting speech is economic but lacking in syntax. Compare Wernicke's aphasia.

Broca's aphasia

Motor aphasia Neurology Loss of the ability to produce spoken and usually written language with retained comprehension See Aphasia.

Broca's aphasia

A condition characterized by either partial or total loss of the ability to express oneself, either through speech or writing. Hearing comprehension is not affected. This condition may result from a stroke, head injury, brain tumor, or infection.
Mentioned in: Aphasia
References in periodicals archive ?
Both participants presented with severe Broca's aphasia including markedly deficient vocal imitation repertoires as described below.
As in the study reported above, each of these targets was selected to lessen the major symptoms of Broca's aphasia.
Participant 2 presents with severe Broca's aphasia and is mostly unable to imitate modeled words (imitated in 1 out of 10 trials during baseline).
In this extended study, a backward chaining procedure was used to treat two participants who presented with severe Broca's aphasia.
The description of Broca's aphasia by Caramazza and Berndt (1982: 484) is a classic characterization: "the Broca's aphasic typically produces short phrases made up primarily of substantive words -- concrete nouns, main verbs, and important modifiers .
Damasio (1992) discusses Broca's aphasia more in terms of the neural network that he sees as damaged in this impairment.
II) Aphasia hypothesis 1: In patients with Broca's aphasia, content morphemes will be more accurate than any type of system morpheme.
The distributions of data reported here, doubling of some inflections in code switching, choice of morphemes most impaired or missing in Broca's aphasia, and relative accuracy of production of English elements in second-language acquisition, receive plausible explanations under the 4-M model.