mammary gland

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gland

 [gland]
an aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs. Glands are divided into two main groups, endocrine and exocrine. adj., adj glan´dular.

The endocrine glands, or ductless glands, discharge their secretions (hormones) directly into the blood; they include the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, and parathyroid glands, the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas, the gonads, the thymus, and the pineal body. The exocrine glands discharge through ducts opening on an external or internal surface of the body; they include the salivary, sebaceous, and sweat glands, the liver, the gastric glands, the pancreas, the intestinal, mammary, and lacrimal glands, and the prostate. The lymph nodes are sometimes called lymph glands but are not glands in the usual sense.
Classification of glands according to mode of secretion. From Applegate, 2000.
acinous gland one made up of one or more acini (oval or spherical sacs).
adrenal gland see adrenal gland.
apocrine gland one whose discharged secretion contains part of the secreting cells.
areolar g's Montgomery's glands.
axillary g's lymph nodes in the axilla.
Bartholin g's two small mucus-secreting glands, one on each side in the lower pole of the labium majus and connected to the surface by a duct lined with transitional cells, which opens just external to the hymenal ring. Their exact function is not clear but they are believed to secrete mucus to moisten the vestibule during sexual excitement. Called also major vestibular glands.
Bowman's g's olfactory glands.
bronchial g's seromucous glands in the mucosa and submucosa of the bronchial walls.
Brunner's g's glands in the submucosa of the duodenum that secrete intestinal juice; called also duodenal glands.
buccal g's seromucous glands on the inner surface of the cheeks; called also genal glands.
bulbocavernous g's (bulbourethral g's) two glands embedded in the substance of the sphincter of the male urethra, posterior to the membranous part of the urethra; their secretion lubricates the urethra; called also Cowper's glands.
cardiac g's mucus-secreting glands of the cardiac part (cardia) of the stomach.
celiac g's lymph nodes anterior to the abdominal aorta.
ceruminous g's cerumin-secreting glands in the skin of the external auditory canal.
cervical g's
1. the lymph nodes of the neck.
2. compound clefts in the wall of the uterine cervix.
ciliary g's sweat glands that have become arrested in their development, situated at the edges of the eyelids; called also Moll's glands.
circumanal g's specialized sweat and sebaceous glands around the anus; called also Gay's glands.
Cobelli's g's mucous glands in the esophageal mucosa just above the cardia.
coccygeal gland glomus coccygeum.
compound gland one made up of a number of smaller units whose excretory ducts combine to form ducts of progressively higher order.
Cowper's g's bulbourethral glands.
ductless g's endocrine glands.
duodenal g's Brunner's glands.
Ebner's g's serous glands at the back of the tongue near the taste buds.
eccrine gland one of the ordinary or simple sweat glands, which are of the merocrine type.
endocrine g's see endocrine glands.
exocrine g's glands that discharge their secretions through ducts opening on internal or external surfaces of the body; see gland.
fundic g's (fundus g's) numerous tubular glands in the mucosa of the fundus and body of the stomach that contain the cells that produce acid and pepsin.
gastric g's the secreting glands of the stomach, including the fundic, cardiac, and pyloric glands.
Gay's g's circumanal glands.
genal g's buccal glands.
glossopalatine g's mucous glands at the posterior end of the smaller sublingual glands.
haversian g's synovial villi.
holocrine gland one whose discharged secretion contains the entire secreting cells.
intestinal g's straight tubular glands in the mucous membrane of the intestines, in the small intestine opening between the bases of the villi, and containing argentaffin cells. Called also crypts or glands of Lieberkühn.
jugular gland a lymph node behind the clavicular insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Krause's gland an accessory lacrimal gland deep in the conjunctival connective tissue, mainly near the upper fornix.
lacrimal g's the glands that secrete tears; see also lacrimal apparatus.
g's of Lieberkühn intestinal glands.
lingual g's the seromucous glands on the surface of the tongue.
lingual g's, anterior seromucous glands near the apex of the tongue.
Littre's g's
2. the male urethral glands.
lymph gland lymph node.
major vestibular g's Bartholin glands.
mammary gland a specialized gland of the skin of female mammals, which secretes milk for the nourishment of their young; it exists in a rudimentary state in the male. See also breast.
meibomian g's sebaceous follicles between the cartilage and conjunctiva of the eyelids. Called also tarsal glands.
merocrine gland one whose discharged secretion contains no part of the secreting cells.
mixed g's
1. seromucous glands.
2. glands that have both exocrine and endocrine portions.
Moll's g's ciliary glands.
Montgomery's g's sebaceous glands in the mammary areola; called also areolar glands.
mucous g's glands that secrete mucus.
olfactory g's small mucous glands in the olfactory mucosa; called also Bowman's glands.
parathyroid g's see parathyroid glands.
parotid g's see parotid glands.
peptic g's gastric glands that secrete pepsin.
pineal gland pineal body.
pituitary gland see pituitary gland.
preputial g's small sebaceous glands of the corona of the penis and the inner surface of the prepuce, which secrete smegma; called also Littre's glands and Tyson's glands.
prostate gland prostate.
pyloric g's the mucin-secreting glands of the pyloric part of the stomach.
salivary g's see salivary glands.
sebaceous gland a type of holocrine gland of the corium that secretes an oily material (sebum) into the hair follicles.
Glands: The relationship of the hair follicle, eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and sebaceous glands. From Copstead, 1995.
sentinel gland an enlarged lymph node, considered to be pathognomonic of some pathologic condition elsewhere.
seromucous g's glands that are both serous and mucous.
serous gland a gland that secretes a watery albuminous material, commonly but not always containing enzymes.
sex gland (sexual gland) gonad.
simple gland one with a nonbranching duct.
Skene's g's the largest of the female urethral glands, which open into the urethral orifice; they are regarded as homologous with the prostate. Called also paraurethral ducts.
solitary g's solitary follicles.
sublingual gland a salivary gland on either side under the tongue.
submandibular gland (submaxillary gland) a salivary gland on the inner side of each ramus of the mandible.
sudoriferous gland (sudoriparous gland) sweat gland.
suprarenal gland adrenal gland.
sweat gland see sweat gland.
target gland any gland affected by a secretion or other stimulus from another gland, such as those affected by the secretions of the pituitary gland.
tarsal g's meibomian glands.
thymus gland thymus.
thyroid gland see thyroid gland.
tubular gland any gland made up of or containing a tubule or tubules.
Tyson's g's preputial glands.
unicellular gland a single cell that functions as a gland, e.g., a goblet cell.
urethral g's mucous glands in the wall of the urethra; in the male, called also Littre's glands.
uterine g's simple tubular glands found throughout the thickness and extent of the endometrium; they become enlarged during the premenstrual period.
vesical g's mucous glands sometimes found in the wall of the urinary bladder, especially in the area of the trigone.
vulvovaginal g's Bartholin's glands.
Waldeyer's g's glands in the attached edge of the eyelid.
Weber's g's the tubular mucous glands of the tongue.

mam·ma·ry gland

[TA]
the potential and active compound, alveolar, mostly merocrine (with possible apocrine components) milk-secreting gland lying within the breast; it comprises 15-24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting postpubertal female gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy and remain active until weaning; normally, the gland remains rudimentary (undistinguishable from its childhood state) in men.
See also: breast (2).

mammary gland

n.
Any of the milk-producing glands in female mammals, consisting of lobes containing clusters of alveoli with a system of ducts to convey the milk to an external nipple or teat. These glands typically occur in pairs and begin secreting milk when young are born.

mammary gland

The gland of the mammalian female breast which is responsible for lactation (production and transportation of milk) to the nipples via the mammary ducts.

mam·ma·ry gland

(măm'ă-rē gland) [TA]
The compound alveolar apocrine secretory gland that forms the breast. It consists of 15-24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy.
Synonym(s): lactiferous glands.

mammary gland

The breast. This is rudimentary in the male but developed and capable of the function of long-term milk production in the female. The word mamma is both Greek and Latin for breast and may derive originally from the sound made by hungry babies. See also BREAST ABSCESS, BREAST CANCER, BREAST ENLARGEMENT and BREAST-FEEDING.

mammary gland

or

milk gland

a gland present in female MAMMALS that produces milk used to suckle their young (see LACTATION). It probably evolved from a modified sweat gland and at least two are normally present, though in many mammals which produce large numbers of offspring more than two are developed, usually concentrated on the underbelly beneath the pelvic girdle. In most mammals the size of the gland is determined by the state of the OESTROUS CYCLE.

gland

an aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs. Glands are divided into two main groups, endocrine and exocrine.
Specific glands will be found under their individual names.

accessory genital g's
glands other than the gonads, intimately associated with the reproductive organs, especially of the male, in which they include vesicular glands (seminal vesicles), ampullary glands, prostate, bulbourethral glands, coagulating glands. Called also accessory sex glands.
accessory sex gland
see accessory genital glands (above).
acinous gland
one made up of one or more oval or spherical sacs (acini).
alveolar gland
one whose secretory units consist of saclike dilatations with a distinct lumen.
alveolar-tubular gland
gland composed of a mixture of alveolar and tubular structures.
ampullary gland
fusiform enlargement of the deferent duct, as it passes across the bladder wall, due to proliferation of glandular tissue in the regionally folded mucosa.
anal g's
small glands in the anal columnar mucosal cells plus larger and more numerous circumanal glands in the surrounding skin.
apocrine gland
one whose discharged secretion contains part of the secreting cells.
avian stomach g's
mucosal and submucosal glands in the stomach of birds; the submucosal glands are thought to secrete both acidic and enzymic substances.
bronchial g's
glands which contain a mixture of serous and mucus-secreting cells found in the bronchial mucosa.
buccal g's
buccal salivary glands lying in the submucosal tissues of the cheek and sometimes the orbit and whose ducts secrete directly into the buccal cavity.
cardiac gland
one of the three (the other two are the pyloric and proper gastric or fundic) types of gland in the stomach wall and capable of secretion into the gastric juices; this gland secretes only mucus.
carpal g's
cutaneous, 'marking' glands found on the medial aspect of the carpus in the pig; although present in both sexes are thought to be used to mark mated females.
circumoral g's
large glands in the lips of cats; used to mark territory either directly by the familiar fawning head rub, or indirectly by rubbing the secretion of the gland onto the fur during grooming.
ceruminous g's
cerumin-secreting glands in the skin of the external auditory canal.
compound gland
one made up of a number of smaller units whose excretory ducts combine to form ducts of progressively higher order.
deep (lacrimal) gland, gland of the third eyelid
an additional lacrimal gland found in the skin of the cartilaginous support of the third eyelid.
ductless g's
endocrine glands.
eccrine gland
a gland that secretes its product without loss of cytoplasm, such as the sweat glands on dog footpads or human skin.
endocrine g's
or ductless glands, discharge their secretions (hormones) directly into the blood; they include the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands, the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, the gonads and the pineal body.
exocrine g's
discharge through ducts opening on an external or internal surface of the body; include the salivary, sebaceous and sweat glands, the liver, the gastric glands, the pancreas, the intestinal, mammary and lacrimal glands, and the prostate.
fundic g's, fundus g's
numerous, tubular glands in the mucosa of the stomach that contain the cells which produce acid and pepsin. According to the species, they are usually found in the body and occasionally in the fundus.
gustatory gland
branched, tubuloalveolar serous glands which open into large lingual papillae.
hematopoietic gland
glandlike body, e.g. the spleen, that takes a part in blood formation.
hemolymph gland
small node resembling lymph node but red or brown in color and containing blood sinuses instead of or alongside lymph spaces. Common in ruminants and some rodents and typically located along the large arteries.
Harderian gland
haversian gland
fold on synovial surface regarded as secretor of synovia.
holocrine gland
one whose discharged secretion contains the entire secreting cells as in sebaceous glands.
horn gland
a scent gland found caudomedial to the horn base in goats of both sexes; increase in size and activity in breeding season. Produce the pungent secretion so characteristic of goats, described best as the distilled essence of reek.
infraorbital g's
special sebaceous glands which line the infraorbital sinus (pouch) in sheep.
inguinal g's
the collection of special tubular and sebaceous glands which line the inguinal pouch (sinus) in sheep.
interdigital g's
special sebaceous and tubular glands in the interdigital sinus (pouch) in sheep.
intestinal g's
microscopic tubular glands which lie in the mucosa of the gut and secrete intestinal juice into the lumen of the small intestine.
labial g's
minor salivary glands; mucous in small ruminants, serous in others.
lateral nasal g's
a local glandular thickening of the mucosa lining the maxillary sinus of dogs and some other species; this tissue is largely responsible for the continually wet nose of the dog.
lingual gland
minor salivary glands, mixed serous and mucous in cattle and horses, mucous in sheep, cats, dogs.
lymph g's
lymph nodes; they are not glands in the true sense.
male sex gland
see testis, accessory genital glands (above).
mammary gland
the milk-secreting organ of female mammals, existing also in a rudimentary state in the male. See also udder, breast.
mandibular salivary g's
major salivary glands; large and with long salivary ducts to deliver secretion into the mouth.
marrow-lymph gland
hemolymph gland having a marrow-like tissue.
meibomian gland
see tarsal gland.
mental gland
a focal specialization of glands in the skin of the pig, caudal to the mandibular symphysis. It is a round raised nevus-like structure composed of sebaceous and apocrine glands with coarse bristles.
merocrine gland
one whose discharged secretion contains no part of the secreting cells.
mixed g's
1. seromucous glands.
2. glands that have both exocrine and endocrine portions.
molar salivary gland
unique gland in felids; predominantly mucoid cells with a few serous.
Moll's g's, g's of Moll
multicellular g's
glands which occur as sheets of epithelial cells with secretory function, e.g. gastric and intestinal mucosae.
multilobular proventricular g's
in the glandular stomach of the bird these glands appear to secrete both pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
nasal g's
small glands scattered throughout the nasal mucosa.
nasolabial gland
see nasolabial gland.
olfactory g's
seromucous glands located beneath the olfactory epithelium; their secretion keeps the local mucosa moist.
palatine salivary gland
a minor salivary gland containing serous or mucoid or mixed secretory cells.
palpebral gland
see meibomian gland (above).
parotid salivary gland
a major salivary gland usually containing serous secretory cells; in carnivores there may also be a few mucus-secreting cells.
preen gland
see uropygial gland (below).
preputial g's
sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands within the prepuce; sometimes aggregated into discrete sacs (musk deer) or diverticula (pigs); their secretions combine with desquamated epithelial cells to produce smegma.
proctodaeal g's
mucous glands containing lymphoid tissue located in the proctodeum of male and female birds.
proper gastric gland
the main digestive glands of the stomach; found in different parts of the stomach in different species but usually in the body of the stomach; secrete pepsin and hydrochloric acid; open into microscopic pits and clefts.
scent gland
secrete pheromones which play such a large part in olfactory communication between animals. Located in a variety of places, e.g. in the elephant they are behind the eyes, in the musk deer they are in the belly wall.
seminal gland
see seminal vesicle.
sentinel gland
an enlarged lymph node, considered to be pathognomonic of some pathological condition elsewhere.
sex g's, sexual g's
gonads. See ovary, testis.
shell gland
the caudal portion of the uterus in the female bird in which the egg is held while the shell is secreted.
simple gland
one with a nonbranching duct.
sine ductibus gland
ductless gland.
solitary g's
solitary follicles.
sperm host gland
in the vagina of birds; store and nourish visiting spermatozoa which are released when oviposition occurs.
splenolymph g's
hemolymph glands having more of the splenic type of tissue.
sublingual salivary gland
a major salivary gland; predominantly mucous cells in ruminants, swine, rodents; mixed serous and mucoid cells in small carnivores and horses.
submental g's
a group of sebaceous glands in the intermandibular space in cats.
submucosal intestinal g's
simple, branched, tubuloacinar glands; mucous in ruminants and dogs, mixed serous and mucous in cats and serous in horses and dogs; in carnivores and small ruminants confined to the proximal or middle parts of the duodenum, extend to jejunum in large ruminants, horses, pigs.
submucosal stomach gland
large, numerous, branched, compound, tubular gland in birds; thought to secrete both acid and enzymatic products.
sudoriferous g's, sudoriparous g's
sweat glands.
supracaudal gland
scent producing cells found only in dogs and cats; in dogs confined to a small area at the base of the tail, in cats extend along the dorsal surface of most of the tail; called also tail gland.
suprarenal gland
tail gland
see supracaudal gland (above).
target gland
one specifically affected by a hormone.
tarsal gland
see meibomian gland (above).
third eyelid gland
a secondary lacrimal gland; a second, deeper gland occurs in pigs and cattle.
tubular gland
any gland made up of or containing a tubule or tubules.
ultimobranchial gland
tissue from the fourth pharyngeal pouch which in mammals is absorbed into the thyroid gland. In fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds the tissue forms separate glands containing calcitonin.
unicellular gland
a single cell that functions as a gland, e.g. a goblet cell.
urethral g's
accessory sex glands in males; secrete serous and mucoid liquids into the urethra to nourish and activate spermatozoa.
uropygial gland
the oil or preen gland of birds is attached to the tail and consists of a bilobed simple tubular, holocrine gland.
vesicular gland
see seminal vesicle.
vestibular g's
major and minor mucus-producing glands in the vestibule of the vulva.
Wolfring g's
small tubuloalveolar glands in subconjunctival tissue above the upper border of the tarsal plate; open onto conjunctiva.
g's of Zeis, Zeis g's
prominent sebaceous sweat glands on the eyelid margins, associated with hair follicles of cilia. See also external hordeolum.
Zuckerkandl gland
two large bodies included with the paraganglia along the abdominal aorta.
zygomatic salivary gland
a unique salivary gland in small carnivores; contains mainly mucous cells with a few serous cells; a modified dorsal buccal gland.

mammary

pertaining to the mammary gland.

mammary abscess
usually an abscess of connective and subcutaneous tissue with no abnormality of the milk. Large masses of necrotic debris may occur in infection of the udder by Arcanobacterium pyogenes but these are usually classified as mastitis because they connect with the duct system and cause the discharge of pus in the milk.
mammary agalactia
the absence of milk secretion in an animal that has recently given birth and has normal mammary development. See also agalactia.
mammary bud
produced along the length of the embryonic mammary ridge these buds represent the future locations of the mammary glands. Invagination of ectoderm at each bud leads to the development of epithelial diverticula, later maturing as lactiferous ducts.
mammary cyst
recorded in ewes; filled with milk.
mammary ductal ectasia
milk ducts are distended with proteinaceous fluid containing cell debris. Common in bitches and queens. May rupture to the exterior causing granulomas. Called also mammary ductal hyperplasia.
mammary ductal hyperplasia
see mammary ductal ectasia (above).
mammary ectopic tissue
bilateral swellings in vulvar tissue; enlarge at parturition; milk can be aspirated.
mammary edema
occurs in the few days before or immediately after calving. The udder and the teats, often the escutcheon and sometimes the ventral abdominal and even the ventral thoracic wall are obviously misshapen by pitting edema. The teats may be so swollen that milking is difficult.
feline mammary hypertrophy
a hormone-dependent, benign enlargement of one or more mammary glands, occurring spontaneously in young, intact female cats and in others treated with progestins. Called also fibroepithelial hyperplasia, fibroadenomatous hyperplasia and fibroadenomatosis.
mammary fibrosis
diffuse thickening or local lumps palpable through skin, mostly in ventral part; may be sufficient to cause asymmetrical enlargement of the gland; terminally leads to atrophy.
mammary gangrene
a lesion which includes skin, a well demarcated mass of tissue usually involving whole or part of teat; secretion is watery, red-tinged; gangrenous mass eventually sloughs leaving a slow-to-heal gaping cavity.
mammary gland
a gland of female mammals developed from specialized sweat glands, which secrete milk for nourishment of the young. The mammary glands are composed of alveolar tissue, with the alveoli lined by milk-secreting epithelium, and connecting to a collecting duct system which empties into the milk cistern (sinus) at the base of the teat and then into the teat cistern (sinus). They exist in a rudimentary state in the male. In food animal females and mares, called also udder.
Enlarge picture
Mammary gland. By permission from Aspinall V, O'Reilly M, Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology, Butterworth Heinemann, 2004
mammary gland caking
appears as a hard plaque along the floor of the udder, usually in a first calf heifer immediately after calving. The milk is normal but the udder is sore and let-down is poor.
mammary gland suspensory ligament
see udder suspensory apparatus.
mammary hypertrophy
normal tissue on palpation but quarter enlarged compared to opposite one of pair.
mammary hypoplasia
failure of the glands to develop. It is also usually extended to include those udders or individual quarters that do not undergo reconstitution after regression during a dry period.
mammary inflammation
mammary involution
regression of mammary tissue to a non-secreting state, with disappearance of much of the epithelial tissue. The process can be induced by the infusion of colchicine into the milk system.
mammary mazoplasia
an increase in the number of ducts per lobule of mammary gland.
mammary neoplasia
is rare in food animals and mares. It accounts for approximately 25% of all neoplasms in dogs but is less common in cats.
mammary pustular dermatitis
an infectious disease of lactating cows consisting of 2 mm diameter thin-walled pustules on the skin of the teats and the ventral udder. There may be similar lesions on the hands of the milkers. The cause is bovine herpesvirus 2. Called also udder impetigo, udder acne.
mammary secretion
just before parturition and for the first week afterwards the secretion is thick, sticky colostrum. This is followed by milk for the duration of the lactation and superseded in the weeks after drying off by honey-dew, a clear, viscid secretion. The gland may be completely dry for a variable period between lactations.
mammary suspensory ligament rupture
a condition manifested by separation of the median ligaments (medial laminae) resulting in the glands dropping ventrally. The teats point almost laterally. It is a problem of recently calved cows. Called also dropped udder.
mammary tumor Gilbertson classification
used in the classification of human breast tumors as an aid to prognosis; five grades of severity based on morphological criteria, especially degree of local invasion and lymph node involvement.
mammary underdevelopment
congenital lack of development of all glands, possibly an inherited defect.
References in periodicals archive ?
OThe secret is for the surgeon to then release the chest muscle so it slides up, leaving the top of the implant under the muscle and the lower part under the breast gland.
The link could be down to hormone oestrogen that can not only trigger breast glands to grow but also tumours.
Fat and breast glands are then cut away before the woman is stitched but she is left with a scar.