Breast Reduction


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Breast Reduction

 

Definition

Breast reduction is a surgical procedure performed in order to decrease the size of the breasts.

Purpose

Women with very large breasts (macromastia or mammary hyperplasia) seek breast reduction for relief of pain in the back, shoulder, and neck. They may also feel uncomfortable about their breast size and have difficulty finding clothing that will fit properly. Additionally, breast reduction may be needed after reconstructive surgery following the surgical removal of cancerous breast tissue (mastectomy), to make the breasts more symmetric.
Men who have enlarged breasts (gynecomastia) may also be candidates for breast reduction. However, excessive alcohol intake, smokingmarijuana, or using anabolic steroids may cause gynecomastia, and surgery is not recommended for men who continue to use these products.

Precautions

Breast reduction is not recommended for women whose breasts are not fully developed or who plan to breast feed.

Description

Breast reduction may also be called reduction mammaplasty. It is most often done in the hospital, under general anesthetic. However, studies have suggested that an outpatient procedure, using local anesthetic and mild sedation may be appropriate for some patients. The operation takes approximately two to four hours. The most commonly made incision encircles the areola (darkened area around the nipple) and extends downward and around the underside of the breast. This produces the least conspicuous scar. The excess tissue, fat, and skin are removed, and the nipple and areola are repositioned. In certain cases, liposuction (fat suctioning) is used to remove extra fat from the armpit area. A hospital stay of up to three days may be needed for recovery.
If deemed medically necessary, breast reduction is covered by some insurance plans. However, a specified amount of breast tissue may need to be removed in order to qualify for coverage. Surgeon's fees range from $4,800-$6,500 and up.

Preparation

Consultation between surgeon and patient is important to ensure that the woman understands and agrees with the expected final results of the procedure. Measurements and photographs may be taken. Many doctors also recommend a mammogram before the operation, to make sure there is no cancer.

Aftercare

After the surgery, an elastic bandage or special supportive bra is placed over gauze bandages and drainage tubes. The bandages and tubes are removed in a day or two. The bra will need to be worn around the clock for several weeks. Stitches are removed one to three weeks after the operation. Normal activities, including sexual relations may be restricted for several weeks. Scars will typically remain red, and perhaps lumpy for up to several months, but will gradually fade and become less noticeable. It may take up to a year before the breasts achieve their final position and size.

Risks

Risks common to any operation include bleeding, infection, anesthesia reactions, or unexpected scarring. Breast reduction may result in decreased feeling in the breasts or nipples and/or impaired ability to breastfeed. When healing is complete, the breasts may be slightly uneven, or the nipples may be asymmetric.

Normal results

Smaller breast size should be achieved, and with that, the accompanying pain and discomfort should be alleviated.

Resources

Organizations

American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. 44 E. Algonquin Rd., Arlington Heights, IL 60005. (847) 228-9900. http://www.plasticsurgery.org.

Key terms

Gynecomastia — Overly developed or enlarged breasts in a male.
Macromastia — Excessive size of the breasts.
Mammary hyperplasia — Increased size of the breast.
Surgical reduction of oversized breasts, a reconstructive procedure warranted when oversize breasts interfere with normal function and physical activity. The procedure involves removing excess breast tissue and skin, repositioning the nipple and areola and reshaping the remaining breast tissue

reduction

(ri-duk'shon) [L. reductio, leading back]
1. Restoration to a normal position, as a fractured bone, dislocated joint, or a hernia.
2. In chemistry, a type of reaction in which a substance gains electrons and positive valence is decreased. See: oxidation

breast reduction

Reduction mammaplasty.

closed reduction of fractures

The treatment of bone fractures by placing the bones in their proper position without surgery.

dorsal reduction

Surgery to decrease the size or prominence of the bridge of the nose.

fat reduction

Elimination or limitation of greasy, fatty, or oily foods from the diet (e.g., by substituting vegetables or legumes for cheeses and meats). Fat reduction is thought by some nutritionists to help reduce the risk of cancer.

fetal reduction

Pregnancy reduction.

leukocyte reduction

The removal of white blood cells from blood before transfusion to decrease the likelihood of transfusion reactions or infection of the recipient with viral diseases.

mindfulness-based stress reduction

The use of meditation and self-awareness to enhance one's ability to cope with challenging circumstances and psychological tensions.

multifetal pregnancy reduction

In multiple pregnancies (as for triplets, quadruplets), the procedure for reducing the number of fetuses, to minimize the risk of maternal and fetal complications later in the pregnancy.

open reduction of fractures

The treatment of bone fractures by the use of surgery to place the bones in their proper position.

pocket reduction

Surgery to eliminate deep periodontal spaces that have formed around teeth. Periodontal pockets are colonized and/or infected by numerous disease-causing bacteria. The periodontist peels away and surgically removes infected gum tissue surrounding the tooth, smooths uneven dental surfaces, and removes tartar before suturing healthy gum back onto the affected tooth.

pregnancy reduction

The intentional elimination of one or more fetuses carried by a woman with a multifetal pregnancy.
Synonym: fetal reduction

risk reduction

1. A decrease in the probability of an adverse outcome.
2. In biostatistics, the formula 1 - HR (the hazard ratio).
3. Any lowering of factors considered hazards for a specified disease, such as wearing a condom to lower the risk for sexually transmitted diseases, ceasing smoking to prevent lung cancer or emphysema, or lowering the intake of dietary cholesterol and fats to prevent heart disease.

salt reduction

Limiting the quantity of sodium chloride in the diet, usually to lower blood pressure or prevent fluid retention.

selective reduction

1. In radiography, the reduction of exposed silver halide crystals to black metallic silver, creating a visible image.
2. In oncology, killing or destroying tumor cells or their products with relatively little damage to healthy cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lawton offers years of experience and a variety of procedures geared towards men including rhinoplasty, eyelid surgery, liposuction, men's breast reduction, facelifts and more.
But the growing number of men who need breast reductions has also been blamed on the female contraceptive drug oestrogen which ends up in recycled tap water.
Surgeons can remove excessive skin by an operation known as abdominoplasty, but, as with breast reduction, it leaves scars.
Recent reports have suggested that the Pop-star-turned-country crooner is fed up with her ample assets that helped bring her fame, and has opted for breast reduction surgery.
Although initial breast reduction has some benefits, women may be disappointed with the appearance of their breasts after massive weight loss.
Health bosses have rationed the number of breast reductions and some have even dumped the treatment, saying it is purely cosmetic.
Katherine Richards, breast reduction case study at The Harley Medical Group commented: "I suffered from terrible back and neck problems due to the sheer weight of my size H breasts.
She slimmed from 22 stone to 17 but despite her GP's recommendation, she was rejected for a breast reduction because her body mass index was 31 instead of 30.
And thus, she ignored a fans' petition pleading with her to forget about breast reduction and went ahead with the op and her chest is down from 34DD to a more modest 34C cup size.
The number of male breast reduction procedures carried out is growing rapidly.
London, January 31 (ANI): Britain has witnessed an 80 per cent rise in breast reduction operations carried out on men.
There are many advantages of female breast reduction by liposculpture over traditional breast reduction surgery: No general anesthesia or IV is needed; there are no stitches or unattractive scars, there is very little pain and most patients return to work the following day," says Dr.