traumatic brain injury

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traumatic brain injury

n. Abbr. TBI
Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and dementia.

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, that may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Synonym(s): acquired brain injury.

traumatic brain injury

Abbreviation: TBI
Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental status or consciousness. TBI is one of the most common causes of neurological dysfunction in the U.S. Each year about 50,000 people die from brain trauma, and an additional 70,000 to 90,000 sustain persistent neurological impairment because of it. About 5.3 million Americans live with TBI disabilities. The most common causes of TBI are motor vehicle or bicycle collisions; falls; gunshot wounds; assaults and abuse; and sports-related injuries. Twice as many males as females suffer TBIs, with the incidence highest between ages 15 and 24. People over 75 are also frequently affected (because of falls).

Patient care

Many traumatic injuries to the head and brain are preventable if simple precautions are followed: motorists should never drive while intoxicated; cyclists and bicyclists should always wear helmets; frail, elderly people should wear supportive footwear and use sturdy devices to assist them while walking.

Symptoms of TBI may include problems with concentration, depressed mood, dizziness, headaches, impulsivity, irritability, post-traumatic stress, or, in severe injuries, focal motor, sensory or verbal deficits. Late effects of severe or repeated injuries can include dementia, Parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

CAUTION!

If an injury to the brain has occurred or is suspected, the victim should not be moved until spinal precautions are carefully implemented. Serial neurologic assessments are carried out to identify the severity of injury and any subsequent deterioration, using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

TBIs can produce intracranial hemorrhage (epidural hematoma [EDH]), subdural hematoma (SDH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with postconcussive syndrome); and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Treatments vary depending upon the type of injury that occurred. Synonym: cerebral concussion

See: table
See also: injury

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, which may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
We owe them our best effort to improve their quality of life and seek methods to prevent brain trauma so that they may enjoy the freedoms that they help to preserve," stated Force Protection CEO Gordon McGilton.
The father of Spears' 10-month-old daughter Maddie was treated for mild brain trauma and a fractured skull at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, and was discharged at the beginning of May.
This large-sample trial reinforces the finding of previous small-sample studies, like the 1998 study published in Nature Medicine--VRT is an effective therapy to improve vision deficits caused by stroke and brain trauma," Professor Sabel said.
Biomarkers development company Banyan Biomarkers Inc revealed on Wednesday the receipt of the US Food and Drug Administration's marketing permit for the first blood test, the Brain Trauma Indicator, to evaluate mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly referred to as concussion, in adults.
After deliberations that took less than six months, the FDA approved the marketing of the Banyan Brain Trauma Indicator to aid the evaluation of concussions in adults.
She was given only a slim chance of survival but her health has made a remarkable improvement - inspiring charity One Kind Act toraise thousands of poundsfor those suffering with brain trauma.
Several days prior, Jan sustained severe brain trauma after falling down a flight of stairs.
These results indicate strong two-way interactions between the brain and the gut that may help explain the increased incidence of systemic infections after brain trauma and allow new treatment approaches," says the lead researcher Alan Faden.
Coma, brain trauma, scars, knee problems, future operations .
The company has raised $2m in funds as part of a plan to develop games that will be used as treatments for individuals with brain trauma, though the nature of these games isn't clear at this time.
com)-- Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) announces the 4th Edition of the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (Guidelines) is published online today, ahead of print, in the journal Neurosurgery.
The youngster was treated in intensive care after suffering brain trauma in the crash on June 5 last year.