It draws on information contained in primary sources and many early historic documents to present Aboriginal names and meanings for various species of Bowenia, Lepidozamia and Macrozamia in Australia, to clarify the names of some Australian species, and to provide additional names for species and plant components not included in the compendium.
The order Cycadales comprises three families (Cycadaceae, Stangeriaceae and Zamiaceae), and 11 genera (Cycas, Stangeria, Bowenia, Dioon, Encephalartos, Macrozamia, Lepidozamia, Ceratozamia, Microcycas, Zamia and Chigua) (Stevenson 1992).
In so doing, this paper provides a comprehensive synthesis of information on Indigenous names and meanings for Bowenia, Lepidozamia and Macrozamia (presented in Table 2), and highlights the value of early texts and cross-disciplinary collaboration in research (see Asmussen 2011).
similarities with petioles of the extant cycad Bowenia spectabilis Hook.
and Bowenia, with a ring of vascular bundles and up to three concentric
Extant genera with cones are Bowenia, Ceratozamia, Chigua, Cycas, Dioon,
1990), such as Cycas, Bowenia, Encephalartos, Macrozamia, and
data indicate Bowenia and Stangeria are not closely related.
Bowenia is unique among cycads in having bipinnately compound
Bowenia has a large underground stem that is branched at the
The provisional classification presented is based on a cladistic analysis; and the present authors think that, although certain aspects could be modified by the addition of new information, others - such as the recognition of Cycadaceae with Cycas, Stangeriaceae with Stangeria and Bowenia, and the Zamiaceae with two major clades (the Encephalartoideae, containing Dioon, Encephalartos, Lepidozamia, and Macrozamia; and the Zamiodeae, containing Ceratozamia, Chigua, Microcycas, and Zamia) - would remain unchanged.
The first, proposed by Petriella and Crisci (1977, 1979), coincides in its general scheme with that introduced by Johnson (1959), although it suggests that Bowenia should be separated as an independent suprageneric taxon.