They questioned the finding that "the Borrelia isolates were closely related to Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, or Borrelia afzelii
Tick exposure has always been high in the investigated areas, as reported in a study conducted >10 years ago, in which 52%-93% of horses were positive for antibodies against Borrelia afzelii
In some of the patients with EF, Borrelia afzelii
antigen (2) and IgG antibody against Borrelia burgdorferi were found to be positive (3).
Anecdotal case reports have linked spirochetes, specifically Borrelia afzelii
(4) and Borrelia burgdorferi (5), to lichen sclerosus; however, the results have not been duplicated.
Lyme disease is caused by three species of Borrelia bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii
and Borrelia garinii.
You are positive for infections other than routine Lyme (that is, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii
, and Borrelia garinii).
dagger]) (Theoretic risk for exposure, mean number of questing nymphs or female ticks infected by pathogenic genospecies of spirochetes that cause Lyme disease: Borrelia afzelii
Rapid differentiation of Borrelia garinii from Borrelia afzelii
and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by LightCycler fluorescence melting curve analysis of a PCR product of the recA gene.
Not only did researchers discover that a significant portion of the ticks were infected, they also were surprised to find that many ticks were infected with multiple strains of Lyme Disease bacteria, including Borrelia afzelii
, Borrelia garinii, and a new yet-unnamed strain, "Borrelia b.
Sequence typing reveals extensive strain diversity of the Lyme borreliosis agents Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii
IGM and IgG significant reactivity to Borrelia burgdoreferi sensu strict, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii
among Italian patients affected by Lyme arthritis or neuroborreliosis.
Association of Borrelia afzelii
with rodents in Europe.