Borna disease


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Borna disease

An infectious encephalopathy of warm-blooded animals, including ruminants (e.g., cattle, horses, sheep), foxes, dogs, cats, birds and primates, which occurs in Central Europe, caused by the Borna virus.
 
Clinical findings
Motor and behavioural symptoms—aggression, eating disorders, hyperactivity, postural disorders, ataxia, disrupted social and sexual activity.
 
Epidemiology
Uncertain, probably via saliva or nasal secretions.

Mortality
Up to 100% in horses, 50% in sheep.

Borna disease

a geographically restricted virus disease of horses and occasionally sheep, characterized by a uniformly fatal encephalomyelitis. Clinically it is characterized by pharyngeal paralysis, muscle tremor, lethargy and flaccid paralysis. The causative virus is a non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA virus with a nuclear site of replication and transcription of its genome. It is noncytolytic and highly neurotropic and is the prototype and only member thus far identified of the family Bornaviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. Serologic evidence indicates that the host range of Borna disease virus or an antigenically related virus is wide and the virus has been linked to psychiatric illnesses in humans. Called also Near Eastern equine encephalomyelitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Distribution of Borna disease virus antigen and RNA in tissues of naturally infected bicoloured white-toothed shrews, Crocidura leucodon, supporting their role as reservoir host species.
Borna disease virus (BDV) is known primarily as a cause of meningoencephalitis in horses, sheep, and other animals, but infection does occur in humans, usually subclinically; antibodies to the organism are present in 3%-6% of people in various populations.
27) similarly reported that in mammals with Borna disease, antibodies against ABV do not exhibit protective properties and seem not to play a role in immunopathogenesis.
Borna disease appears as a sporadic infection affecting small numbers of animals each year.
Borna disease virus and its role in neurobehavioral disease.
Isolation and characterization of a new subtype of Borna disease virus.
Infection, lymphocyte infiltration, and dysfunction of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system are common to PDD as well as to classical Borna disease in natural disease and experimental models (2,12,13).
Borna disease (BD) is a severe immunopathologic disorder of the central nervous system induced by infection with Borna disease virus (BDV), the prototype of a new virus family, Bornaviridae, within the order Mononegavirales.
These included hepatitis E virus, with similar strains causing liver disease in swine and humans; Borna disease virus, causing neurologic disease in various species of animals as well as, debatably, psychiatric disorders in humans; and the recently discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and its yet-undefined animal reservoir.
For example, a case-control study of Borna disease in cats indicated that hunting mice was a risk factor and that rodents might be virus reservoirs (27).
Rats, tree shrews, and monkeys (mammals like us--some much like us) infected with Borna disease virus behave much like humans with bipolar disorder.
Borna disease virus (BDV), which is endemic in parts of Europe, infects a broad range of species and causes a rare meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep.