bone tumor

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bone tumor

Oncology A generic term encompassing both malignant and benign tumors in bone; most cancer in bone tissue is 2º to metastasis from a distant 1ºs–eg, from breast or prostate; 1º bone CA–eg, osteogenic sarcoma is rare. See Osteoma, Osteosarcoma.

bone

1. the hard, rigid form of connective tissue constituting most of the skeleton of most vertebrates, composed chiefly of an organic component of collagenous matrix and cells and a mineral component of calcium phosphate and other salts.
2. any distinct piece of the skeleton of the body. For a named list of bones see Table 10.
3. describes conformation, substance, thickness and quality of bone structure in an animal, e.g. an animal with good bone. See also osseous.

bone ash
analysis of the degree of mineralization of bone is done by an ash analysis in which the bone is heated at 600°C until there is no further weight loss.
bone atrophy
brittle b's
see osteogenesis imperfecta.
bone callus
see callus (2).
cancellated bone, cancellous bone
bone composed of thin intersecting lamellae, usually found internal to compact bone. Called also spongy bone.
cartilage bone
bone developing within cartilage, ossification taking place within a cartilage model. Called also endochondral ossification.
cheek bone
see zygomatic bone.
chevron bone
see hemal arch.
chondroid bone
has histological characteristics of both cartilage and bone; may develop in response to tensions from frequently changing directions.
bone clamp
strongly built, handheld, tong-like instrument with outcurving blades making a circle when closed for grasping a piece of bone shaft. The handles are ratcheted to give a firm grasp, and the faces of the blades have deep, crossways grooves.
compact bone
bone substance that is dense and noncancellous.
cortical bone
the compact bone of the shaft of a bone that surrounds the marrow cavity.
bone cyst
a discrete, grossly visible cavity, filled with fluid and often lined by a membrane. It may be located under cartilage (subchondral), be a single cavity (unicameral), filled with blood (aneurysmal) or contain epidermal cells (epidermoid).
Enlarge picture
Aneurysmal bone cyst. By permission from Slatter D, Textbook of Small Animal Surgery, Saunders, 2002
decalcified bone
a material for bone grafting. Prepared by treatment with hydrochloric acid, bone morphogenic protein is retained.
bone density
the degree of mineralization, usually demonstrable in radiographs.
bone discoloration
continuous intake of tetracycline colors bone of growing animals yellow; inherited or acquired porphyria discolors bone red-brown.
ectopic bone
bone which develops in abnormal sites. Needs to be differentiated from ectopic ossification and ectopic mineralization.
endochondral bone
bone formed by the ossification of cartilage. The means of lengthening of long bones. See also enchondral ossification.
entoglossal bone
the bone in a bird's tongue.
bone file, bone rasp
see bone rasp.
flat bone
one whose thickness is slight, sometimes consisting of only a thin layer of compact bone, or of two layers with intervening cancellated bone and marrow; usually curved rather than flat.
bone flour
finely ground bone used as a mineral supplement in animal feed to supply additional calcium and phosphorus. Needs to be properly sterilized.
bone fragility
the ease with which bone fractures depends to a large extent on the density of its compact bone, that is its degree of mineralization, which in turn depends on a number of factors including age, nutritional adequacy, state of pregnancy and lactation and exposure to weight bearing.
bone G1a protein
intramembranous bone
bone formed within membrane or under the periosteum.
jugal bone
see zygomatic bone.
lamellar bone
mature bone in which the collagen fibers are in an orderly layered arrangement producing lamellae.
laminar bone
the formation of bone by the periosteum in layers, sometimes more than one layer at a time, to supplement the diaphyseal expansion of the bone. Is marked in farm animals and large dogs, and serves to accommodate the skeleton to the very rapid growth of the musculature.
lingual bone
see hyoid bone.
long bone
one whose length usually exceeds its breadth and thickness and which usually bears epiphyses at each extremity during growth.
Enlarge picture
Structure of typical long bone. By permission from Aspinall V, O'Reilly M, Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology, Butterworth Heinemann, 2004
malar bone
see zygomatic bone.
marble b's
mastoid bone
the posterior part of the petrous temporal bone; the mastoid process.
bone matrix
the intercellular component of bone. It includes collagen and amorphous ground substance consisting mostly of mucopolysaccharides (chondroitin sulfate).
bone meal
a product made from meatless bones which are crushed and sterilized. The bones are derived from boning plants and retail outlets. The bonemeal is used as stock feed, fertilizer and in a number of industries. Care is needed in its preparation and in the selection of the bones because of the high risk of transmitting diseases including anthrax, salmonellosis, tuberculosis. A coarse grade of bone flour (see above). Prohibited from being used as a feed in many countries as part of programs to control or prevent bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
membrane bone
bone that develops within a connective tissue membrane.
metaplastic bone
bone formed by connective tissue by redifferentiation of mesenchymal cells.
bone mineral
principally calcium and phosphorus but includes also magnesium and, to a lesser extent, potassium and fluorine. Consisting mainly of hydrated calcium phosphate (apatite) and calcium carbonate.
bone modeling
the sum of the activities of the endosteum and periosteum of bone to produce bone forms.
bone neoplasm
includes fibroma, fibrosarcoma, chondroma, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, osteoma, osteosarcoma.
pelvic bone
hip bone.
perilacunar bone
low density bone around the lacunae of bone which contains much amorphous mineral. In this form the mineral is labile and therefore important in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis.
periosteal bone
bone deposition by the periosteum in successive laminae; the bone formation in new bone and in a callus, beginning as fibrocellular tissue forming from the endosteum and periosteum, followed by calcification and bone formation.
bone pinning
see pinning.
pneumatic bone
bone that contains air-filled spaces.
premaxillary bone
pterygoid bone
a small skull bone that articulates with the sphenoid.
bone remodeling unit
osteoclasts, osteoblasts and their progenitors, the basal metabolic unit of bone.
bone sand
remnants of bone trabeculae destroyed in osteomyelitis and sequestered in pus.
bone sealant
a composition of beeswax and isopropylpalmitate used to seal the cut end of bone and stop the oozing of blood.
shin bone
short bone
one of approximately equal length, width and thickness, usually without epiphyses.
solid bone
compact bone.
spongy bone
cancellous bone.
bone structural unit
see basic multicell unit.
sutural b's
variable and irregularly shaped bones in the sutures between the bones of the skull.
bone tumor
includes cartilage-forming tumors (chondroma, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, multilobular tumor) and bone-forming tumors (osteoma, osteosarcoma).
tympanic bone
the part of the temporal bone surrounding the middle ear.
bone wax
see bone sealant (above).
wormian b's
sutural bones.
woven bone
primitive bone with coarse collagen bundles arranged in a disorderly fashion and replaced subsequently by lamellar bone.
References in periodicals archive ?
This case illustrates the difficulties that can occur when relying on a singular diagnostic modality, particularly when dealing with benign bone neoplasms.
Two of the articles review bone neoplasms, one describing the gamut of bone tumors with epithelial differentiation or epithelioid morphology and the other describing the spectrum of small, round cell neoplasms.
Approximately 3% to 7% of extranodal lymphomas present as primary bone neoplasms, (78-81) and lymphomas constitute about 7% of all bone malignancies.
Symptoms commonly associated with these temporal bone neoplasms tend to be site-specific.
23,24] The presence of the t(2; 5)(p23;q35) translocation in these primary bone neoplasms has not been documented.