This suggests that men lower in spirituality also tended to have higher levels of body shame and, in turn, increased eating disorder symptomatology.
As predicted, BMI and body shame were the dominant mediators, with men reporting higher BMI and body shame reporting greater eating disorder symptomatology.
Body shame and BMI were the strongest predictors of eating disorder symptomatology, with men reporting higher level of body shame and higher BMI reporting more eating disorder symptomatology.
While spirituality did not have a direct effect on eating disorder symptomatology, it was strongly related through the mediator body shame.
Somewhat surprising, gay men's experience of body shame was not linked to their sexual orientation, per se.
Another possibility is that aging gay men will have lower body shame over time that counteracts weight discrepancy, thereby lowering their risk for disordered eating.
The measures used to assess body shame and eating disorder symptomatology in gay and heterosexual men may not tap these constructs in the same manner as they do in women.
More research is needed to uncover gay and heterosexual men's experience of body shame and its relationship to BMI, weight discrepancy and eating disorder symptomatology in order to establish nuances based on sexual orientation or sex differences.
Furthermore, the significant positive relationships between frequency of objectification experiences and both body surveillance and body shame suggest further support for the theory and point to the distinct relationship between sexual objectification and a woman's relationship to her body.
The current results highlight that the presence of exacting cultural standards for women's appearance shapes young women's body consciousness, perpetuating constant self-monitoring as well as stigmatization via body shame.
The analyses revealed a main effect of BMI for body shame.
Given the fact that objectification experiences and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance accounted for 30% or more of the variance in both body surveillance and body shame, researchers could consider incorporating into their studies a feminist and social constructionist understanding of the construction of women's negative body experience.