avian influenza

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Related to Bird influenza: Cat influenza

avian influenza

a serious viral disease of many birds, both domestic (especially chickens, ducks, and turkeys) and wild. Wild birds act as reservoirs for influenza A virus (Orthomyxovirus); in birds, these viruses are responsible for clinical pictures ranging from low-grade illness to serious outbreaks with high mortality rates; signs range from reduced egg production to a fulminant peracute clinical course; respiratory signs (sinusitis, blood-stained nasal discharge) often occur in acute infections. Historically, close contact of fowl with humans has been shown epidemiologically to foster cross-species jump (avian to human) of new influenza strains (e.g., Hong Kong 1997 [AH5N1], Hong Kong 1999 [AH9N2]). New neuroaminidase and hemagglutinin subtypes develop as a result of antigenic drift, and less commonly, antigenic shift resulting in serious human influenza epidemics, and give rise to the need for annual reformulation of flu vaccines to protect against newer active strains. Currently 15 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes have been identified in reservoir species.

avian influenza

[ā′vē·ən]
a highly contagious viral disease of birds caused by an influenza A virus; it occurs in both mild and severe forms. The severe form is highly pathogenic and can result in a mortality rate for birds that can reach 90% to 100% within 48 hours. It may be transmitted to humans through contact with bird droppings or surfaces contaminated by them or through intermediate hosts such as pigs. Person-to-person transmission appears to be rare. Symptoms of avian influenza in humans range from typical influenza-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, and other severe and life-threatening complications. The only means of control when avian influenza has been observed in a flock of domestic fowl is destruction of infected birds and disinfection of the farm. Also called avian flu, bird flu.

avian influenza

A highly contagious viral infection that can infect commercial, wild, and pet birds, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, parrots, and budgerigars. Of the 15 serotypes of bird flu, H5N1 is of greatest concern. The first human H5N1 cases were seen in Hong Kong in 1997, and were linked to close contact with live infected poultry or their saliva, fluids from their beaks, or their droppings, which can contaminate dust, soil, water, feed, equipment, vehicles, and clothing. Person-to-person spread is poorly documented and may not occur.

a·vi·an in·flu·en·za

(ā'vē-ăn in'flū-en'ză)
A disease of birds due to strains of influenza A virus. Although wild birds, the natural hosts, seldom become sick when infected, avian influenza viruses can cause disease in domestic poultry and, rarely, in human beings. Transmission of the virus occurs through direct contact with an infected bird. The consequences of human infection vary from conjunctivitis and respiratory symptoms to severe systemic illness and death.
Synonym(s): bird flu.

avian influenza

‘bird ‘flu’ caused by the H5N1 virus that caused epidemics in poultry in Japan, Korea, Thailand, China and Vietnam early in 2004. The virus is capable of spreading from birds to humans. By early 2005 there had been 44 known cases of H5N1 infection in humans with 32 deaths. There is serious concern that recombination with human influenza viruses may already have occurred raising the danger of human to human infection.

Newcastle,

a community in England near the location where Newcastle disease was first observed.
Newcastle disease - an influenzalike disease of birds that is transmissible to man if in contact with diseased birds. Synonym(s): avian influenza; Ranikhet disease

avian

pertaining to or emanating from members of the class Aves. See also bird.

avian air sacs
avian broodiness
the desire to sit on eggs and hatch them is very strong in birds after they have laid a few eggs at the beginning of a new egg laying season. The procedure is a disaster for the commercial egg producer because egg laying ceases. Temporary measures are available to discourage hens from going broody but the long-term practice has been to select against it so that modern egg laying strains of birds do not show broodiness.
avian diseases
diseases affecting birds. For individual diseases see under etiological or pathoanatomic keyword, e.g. avian arizonosis, myeloblastosis (2).
avian hepatitis B-like virus
avian incubation periods
quail hatch in 16-18 days, chickens in 21, ducks in 28 days (Muscovies are an exception—33-35 days) and turkeys in 28 days. In some wild species hatching is synchronized by communication between the eggs.
infectious avian nephrosis
see infectious avian nephrosis.
avian influenza
a highly contagious disease caused by influenza A virus, affecting fowl, turkeys, pheasants and some wild birds, but rarely waterbirds or pigeons. Clinically there is a short course and very heavy mortality; birds that survive have a nasal discharge, white necrotic spots on the comb and wattles, and edema of the head and neck. Called also fowl plague. Some strains, notably H5N1 and H7N7, have emerged as the cause of fatal, but relatively rare, human infections.
avian leukosis
see avian leukosis.
avian lymphoid leukosis
see lymphoid leukosis.
avian malaria
a disease affecting most species of birds and caused by Plasmodium spp. (P. gallinaceum in fowl, P. juxtanucleare in fowl and turkeys, P. durae and P. griffithsi in turkeys). The disease is characterized by anemia which may be fatal. Transmission is by mosquitoes. See also plasmodium.
avian molt
see molting.
avian nesting
a strong biological urge to prepare a nest and lay eggs in it occurs in only some domestic birds. The building of a nest is stimulated by the previous laying of an egg.
avian oogenesis
the process from the time that the oocyte leaves the ovary until is produced with the typical avian flourish as a finished egg takes 25-26 hours. The yolk is added to the oocyte in the ovary and over a period of 60-70 days before the ovum is released. The oocyte is enveloped with albumen in the albumen-secreting section or magnum of the oviduct. The two shell membranes are added to the egg as it passes through the isthmus of the oviduct. The shell is added during a stay of about 15-20 hours in the shell gland, the last stop before the vagina. See also egg (4).
avian pox
see fowlpox.
avian reticuloendotheliosis virus
pathogenic avian retroviruses that are antigenically and genetically unrelated to avian leukosis/sarcoma retroviruses.
avian tuberculosis
see Mycobacterium aviumtuberculosis.
avian type C retroviruses
includes avian leukosis viruses and avian sarcoma viruses.
avian vibrionic hepatitis
see avian vibrionic hepatitis.

Patient discussion about avian influenza

Q. If the bird flu were to reach North America, how many people would it kill? How do you protect yourself & others? What can we do to protect ourselves against the Avian Flu which has officially begun to infect humans? How many will die?

A. It infected few people working with chickens, it can
T move around, so I wouldn’t worry too much. the chances of that happening is the same as a meteor hitting earth and destroying it, same as a nuclear war in the middle east that will wipe out half of humanity, same as all big disasters that can happen.
Unless it’s your job to worry about it (world health organization) – just try to live peaceful life.

More discussions about avian influenza
References in periodicals archive ?
THE first human cases of bird influenza were seen in Hong Kong in 1997.
We will urge the North to take thorough measures to curb the spread of bird influenza through a contact between liaison officials at Panmunjom (truce village),'' a Unification Ministry official was quoted as saying.
SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and bird influenza are but two recent examples of the consequences of viral admixture arising in Asia within uncontrolled and crowded populations of fowl, mammals, and humans.
The EMEA also granted marketing authorization to the world's first bird influenza vaccine.
To provide baseline information about the strains and distribution of influenza viruses in Canadian wild ducks and to respond to the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) type H5N1 in Asia, Europe, and Africa, Canada's Interagency Wild Bird Influenza Survey was ini tiated in July 2005.