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Any material, including water, that provides the nutritive requirements of an organism to maintain growth and physical well-being. For humans, food includes carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. See: carbohydrate; digestion; fat(2); nutrition; protein; stomach
bioengineered foodGenetically modified food.
food chainSee: chain
contamination of food
The presence, introduction, or development of infectious or toxic material in food. Food may be contaminated by chemical residues (such as pesticides), bacteria (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria), viruses (hepatitis A, Norwalk), protozoa (Giardia), worms (tapeworms and roundworms), molds (Aspergillus), or toxins (botulinum, staphylococcal enterotoxin).
Food in which one or more steps in preparation have been completed before the product is offered for retail sale. Examples include frozen vegetables, bake mixes, heat-and-serve foods, and ready-to-eat foods.
Food in which the nutrient content has been modified for use in special diets, esp. for diabetics.
A processed food that has lost nutrients during milling, grinding, pasteurization, or other processes and then had those nutrients added back to the marketed product. Two examples of vitamins commonly used in food enrichment are vitamins B1 and B2, thiamine and riboflavin, respectively.
Commercially available, ready-to-eat meals (such as hamburgers, hot dogs, pizza, fried chicken, or french fries) with a high fat content, little fiber, and minimal quantities of vitamins or calcium.
1. Food products with additives for which, following FDA approval, health claims can be made.
2. A food that has a defined health benefit for the person who consumes it.
genetically modified food
Any crop or agricultural product altered by biological engineering for drought resistance, increased growth, resistance to pests or pesticides, prolonged shelf-life, altered textures or flavors, or other economically or commercially desirable characteristics. Promoters of genetically modified foods point to their improved yields (which may have a beneficial impact on agricultural profits or world hunger). Opponents of genetic modification have raised concerns about its effects on ecosystems, human food allergies, and religious dietary laws.Synonym: bioengineered food
A colloquial term for food that has limited nutritional value. Typically it refers to foods high in salt, sugar, fat, or calories with low nutrient content. These include most salted snack foods, candy, gum, most sweet desserts, fried fast food, and carbonated beverages.
A food formulated by the selective use of nutrients and manufactured for the dietary treatment of a specific condition or disease.
A nutritional source that has not been used in the past or one that has been made by a new manufacturing process, including, e.g., genetic modification.
A crop or animal product cultivated with specific guidelines that limit the use of petrochemicals, radiation, or genetically engineered technologies in its agriculture.
Raw food that has been adulterated or modified to increase its nutritional content or make it more palatable and easier to ship, to store, or to sell.
ready-to-use therapeutic foodAbbreviation: RUTF
A nutritional supplement consisting of a roasted, ground cereal and a roasted, ground legume, fortified with vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. The cereal provides a source of carbohydrates; the legume, a source of protein. RUTFs are used to treat and prevent malnutrition in impoverished populations, esp. undernourished children.
Any food that is contaminated or more likely than most other foods to be contaminated with bacteria, carcinogens, or toxins.
Food products manufactured from various nutritional components made to resemble conventional protein-source foods in texture such as meat, seafood, or poultry.