anthrax vaccine

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vaccine

 [vak-sēn´]
a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or rickettsiae), administered for prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious diseases.
anthrax vaccine a cell-free protein extract of cultures of Bacillus anthracis, used for immunization against anthrax.
attenuated vaccine a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms or viruses cultured under adverse conditions, leading to loss of their virulence but retention of their ability to induce protective immunity.
autogenous vaccine a vaccine prepared from microorganisms which have been freshly isolated from the lesion of the patient who is to be treated with it.
bacterial vaccine a preparation of killed or attenuated bacteria used as an active immunizing agent.
BCG vaccine see bcg vaccine.
cholera vaccine a preparation of killed Vibrio cholerae, administered intradermally, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly for immunization against cholera.
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine DTP vaccine: a combination of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine; administered intramuscularly for simultaneous immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough. When the pertussis vaccine is an acellular form, the combination may be abbreviated DTaP.
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine adsorbed and Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine a combination of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis vaccine, and Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine; administered intramuscularly to children 18 months to 5 years of age for simultaneous immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, and infection by Haemophilus influenzae type b.
Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (HbCV) a preparation of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide covalently bound to diphtheria toxoid or to a specific diphtheria protein, meningococcal protein, or tetanus protein; it stimulates both B and T lymphocyte responses and is much more immunogenic than the polysaccharide vaccine. Administered intramuscularly as a routine immunizing agent in infants and young children.
Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine (HbPV) a preparation of highly purified capsular polysaccharide derived from Haemophilus influenzae type b, which stimulates an immune response in B lymphocytes only; administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously as an immunizing agent in children ages 18 months to 5 years.
hepatitis A vaccine inactivated an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from an attenuated strain of hepatitis A virus grown in cell culture; administered intramuscularly.
hepatitis B vaccine a preparation of hepatitis B surface antigen, derived either from human plasma of carriers of hepatitis B (hepatitis B vaccine inactivated) or from cloning in yeast cells (hepatitis B vaccine [recombinant]); administered intramuscularly.
heterologous vaccine a vaccine that confers protective immunity against a pathogen that shares cross-reacting antigens with the microorganisms in the vaccine.
human diploid cell vaccine rabies vaccine prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of human diploid embryo lung cells and inactivated; administered intramuscularly or intradermally.
influenza virus vaccine a killed virus vaccine used in immunization against influenza; it is trivalent, usually containing two influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain.
live vaccine a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have been attenuated but retain their immunogenic properties.
Lyme disease vaccine (recombinant OspA) a preparation of outer surface protein A (OspA), a cell surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi, produced by recombinant technology; administered intramuscularly for active immunization against lyme disease.
measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live (MMR) a combination of live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against measles, mumps, and rubella.
measles and rubella virus vaccine live a combination of live attenuated measles and rubella viruses, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against measles and rubella.
measles virus vaccine live a live attenuated virus vaccine used for immunization against measles, although it is usually administered as the combination measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine.
meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine a preparation of a capsular antigen of Neisseria meningitidis, administered subcutaneously to provide immunity to meningitis.
mumps virus vaccine live a live attenuated virus vaccine used in immunization against mumps; usually administered as the combination measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine.
pertussis vaccine a preparation of killed Bordetella pertussis bacilli (whole-cell vaccine) or of purified antigenic components thereof (acellular vaccine), used to immunize against pertussis; generally used in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP or DTaP).
plague vaccine a preparation of killed Yersinia pestis bacilli, administered intramuscularly as an active immunizing agent against plague.
pneumococcal heptavalent conjugate vaccine a preparation of capsular polysaccharides from the seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae most commonly isolated from children 6 years of age or younger, coupled to a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin; used as an active immunizing agent for infants and children at risk for pneumococcal disease, administered intramuscularly.
pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent a preparation of purified capsular polysaccharides from the 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing the majority of pneumococcal disease; used as an active immunizing agent in persons over 2 years of age, administered intramuscularly.
poliovirus vaccine inactivated (IPV) a preparation of killed polioviruses of three types, given in a series of intramuscular or subcutaneous injections to immunize against poliomyelitis. It does not induce intestinal immunity and so is not effective for poliovirus eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses still exist in large numbers. However, it does not cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and so is preferred for routine immunization in areas where the risk of infection by a wild-type poliovirus is very low, as in the United States. Called also Salk vaccine.
poliovirus vaccine live oral (OPV) an oral vaccine against poliomyelitis consisting of three types of live, attenuated polioviruses. It is given orally, often on a sugar cube, and so is convenient for administration to children and large groups of people. It induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, so is useful for immunization and poliomyelitis eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses have not been eradicated. However, it can cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in persons newly vaccinated with it and their contacts, which is considered an unjustifiable risk in countries such as the United States, where the risk of exposure to wild-type polioviruses is very low. Thus, for routine immunization in the United States, it has been superseded by poliovirus vaccine inactivated. Called also Sabin vaccine.
polyvalent vaccine a vaccine prepared from cultures or antigens of more than one strain or species.
purified chick embryo cell vaccine an inactivated virus vaccine used for pre- and postexposure rabies immunization, prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of chicken fibroblasts; administered intramuscularly.
rabies vaccine any of various vaccines against rabies consisting of inactivated virus, used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, such as veterinarians, and for postexposure prophylaxis in conjunction with rabies immune globulin. See human diploid cell v., purified chick embryo cell v., and rabies v. adsorbed.
rabies vaccine adsorbed (RVA) a rabies vaccine prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of fetal rhesus monkey lung and inactivated; administered intramuscularly.
rotavirus vaccine live oral a live virus vaccine produced from a mixture of four types of rotavirus, used to immunize infants against rotaviral gastroenteritis.
rubella and mumps virus vaccine live a combination of live attenuated rubella and mumps viruses, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against rubella and mumps.
rubella virus vaccine live a live attenuated virus vaccine used for immunization against rubella, usually administered as the combination measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine.
subunit vaccine a vaccine produced from specific protein subunits of a virus and thus having less risk of adverse reactions than whole virus vaccines.
typhoid vaccine any of several preparations of Salmonella typhi used for immunization against typhoid fever, including a parenteral heat- and phenol-inactivated bacteria vaccine, an oral live vaccine prepared from the attenuated strain Ty21a, and a parenteral vaccine prepared from typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide.
varicella virus vaccine live a preparation of live, attenuated human herpesvirus 3 (varicella-zoster virus) administered subcutaneously for production of immunity to varicella and herpes zoster.
yellow fever vaccine a preparation of attenuated yellow fever virus, used to immunize against yellow fever.

anthrax vaccine (absorbed)

(an-thrax vak-seen) ,

BioThrax

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: vaccines immunizing agents
Pregnancy Category: D

Indications

Provides active immunization against Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in patients 18–65 yr who have come in contact with animal products originating in anthrax endemic areas and that may be contaminated with anthrax spores, or those at high risk of exposure to anthrax spores (veterinarians, laboratory workers, and others whose work involves handling potentially contaminated animals or materials). Routine immunization is not recommended. Safety and efficacy in the post-exposure setting has not been established.

Action

Contains the protective antigen (PA); administration produces antibodies to PA, which neutralizes the toxins produced by B. anthracis.

Therapeutic effects

Some degree of protection against infection by B. anthracis with decreased sequelae.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Absorption follows intramuscular administration.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (antibody production)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
Intramuscularrapidunknown1 yr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: History of anaphylactic or anaphylactic-like reaction following previous anthrax vaccination; Hypersensitivity to any of the vaccine components; History of Guillain-Barré syndrome (unless potential benefits outweigh risks); Obstetric: Do not use unless potential benefits outweigh risks.
Use Cautiously in: History of anthrax disease (↑ risk of severe local adverse reactions); Moderate to severe illness (postpone until recovery); Pre-existing immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive therapies (may result in inadequate response; defer vaccination for 3 mo following completion of treatment); Latex sensitivity (vial stopper contains dry natural rubber); Lactation / Pediatric: Safety not established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • headache

Gastrointestinal

  • nausea

Local

  • local reactions

Musculoskeletal

  • myalgia

Miscellaneous

  • allergic reactions including anaphylaxis (life-threatening)
  • fever
  • malaise (most frequent)

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Concurrent immunosuppressants, antineoplastics, and radiation therapy may result in inadequate response (defer vaccination for 3 mo following completion of treatment).

Route/Dosage

Intramuscular (Adults 18–65 yr) 0.5 mL at 0 and 4 weeks, then at 6, 12, and 18 mo. (for total of 5 doses). Single booster dose of 0.5 mL should then be given annually for those who remain at risk.

Availability

Suspension for intramuscular injection: In 5-mL multidose vials

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Prior to administration, assess patient’s immunization history for possible vaccine sensitivities and/or previous vaccine-related adverse reactions to determine if vaccine is contraindicated.
  • Assess patient for illness (fever) prior to administration. May be administered to patients with mild illness with or without low-grade fever. Do not administer to patients with moderate or severe illness. Administer after illness resolves.
  • Assess patient for history of latex sensitivity. Vial stopper contains dry natural rubber.
  • Epinephrine 1:1000 should be available in case of anaphylactic reaction.
  • Monitor patient for adverse reactions throughout series of vaccinations. If adverse reactions occur, report them to the Medical Affairs division of BioPort Corporation (517) 327-1675 during regular working hours and (517) 327-7200 during off hours. Adverse events may also be reported to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) at (800) 822-7967.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Risk for infection (Indications)
Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Use a separate 5/8-inch 25–27 gauge needle and syringe for each patient to avoid transferring viral hepatitis and other infections.
    • Shake vial thoroughly to ensure suspension is mixed well. Do not administer solutions that are discolored or contain particulate matter. Wipe rubber stopper with alcohol swab and allow to dry before inserting needle. It is not necessary to restart the series if a dose is not given on time (resume as soon as possible).
  • Intramuscular: Administer IM using a 23 or 25 gauge 1– or 1.5–inch needle. Do not administer IV. Rub site gently to promote dispersion of vaccine. Use a different site for each sequential injection of vaccine.
  • Syringe Incompatibility: Do not mix with any other product in syringe.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient when to get each vaccination. Emphasize the importance of completing the series and maintaining current vaccinations. Patients should not be considered protected until they have received the full series of vaccinations.
  • Advise patient to report adverse reactions. Most common local adverse reactions are tenderness, erythema, subcutaneous nodule, induration, warmth, local pruritus, arm motion limitation, and edema.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Some degree of protection against infection by B. anthracis with decreased sequelae.

anthrax vaccine

a cell-free protein extract of cultures of Bacillus anthracis, used for immunization against anthrax.

anthrax vaccine

A vaccine produced by the Michigan State Department of Health, which is given routinely to veterinarians and others working with livestock.

In 1997, the US military announced that all personnel would receive the vaccine, as they do in the UK and Russia, given the fear of anthrax’s potential as a biologic weapon.
References in periodicals archive ?
The BioThrax vaccine was examined on exposed rabbits and deemed to render a "reasonable level of protection," by giving a survival rate of 70% to 100%, the agency said.
Even though the BioThrax program has been around for more than a decade, the company is trying to figure out ways to make it more efficient.
The BioThrax market authorization for India follows the publication in 2008 of the National Disaster Management Guidelines by the Indian National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), which is the government body that oversees disaster management.
In addition to the further development of AV7909, Emergent's franchise of anthrax countermeasures includes: BioThrax - the only vaccine licensed by the FDA to prevent anthrax.
Finally, according to VaxGen, the purchase of BioThrax for the stockpile as a stopgap measure raised the bar for the VaxGen vaccine.
We are extremely pleased that the FDA has taken this step as we continue our efforts to expand the label indication for BioThrax to include, in combination with antibiotics, its use for post-exposure prophylaxis for anthrax infection," said Fuad El-Hibri, chairman and chief executive officer of Emergent BioSolutions.
Under the modified contract, the company is required to complete delivery of a total of five million doses of BioThrax to HHS prior to May 31, 2007, for a fixed price of $120 million.
With today s approval of BioThrax, we now have a vaccine that can be used, together with antibiotic treatment, to prevent disease after exposure to anthrax spores, said Karen Midthun, M.
In May 2006, the Company executed a second contract with HHS for the delivery of an additional 5 million doses of BioThrax for the SNS.
We are extremely pleased that FDA has confirmed that BioThrax is safe and effective for the prevention of anthrax infection regardless of the route of exposure," said Robert Kramer, Chief Executive Officer of BioPort Corporation, the Emergent subsidiary that manufactures BioThrax.
A new indication for BioThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) has received nod from the FDA to prevent disease after suspected or confirmed exposure to Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax disease.
Our goal is to develop process parameters that are amenable to routine GMP production and large-scale manufacturing in an effort to contribute to the production of BioThrax at large scale.